Welfare Approach: Achieving Pareto Optimality-Prespectives in Human Geography YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Human geography encompass many approaches for the study. These includes system analysis, locational analysis, quantitative analysis, welfare approach, environmentalism, determinism, possibilism, areal differentiation and so on.

Welfare approach talked in this lecture is amongst one of these approaches. It deals predominantly with who, how, where and what.

This approach gained momentum as rejection to quantitative approach in geography and started to evolve in 1960s.

Welfare Approach

Focus – Inequality & Social Justice

Against – Quantitative Revolution

Social Issues Such as Poverty, Hunger, Crime, Racial Discrimination & Access to Public Services Are Addressed

  • ‘who’ suggests a population of an area

  • ‘what’ refers to various facilities

  • ‘where’ refers to the differing living standards in different areas

  • ‘how’ reflects the process by which the observed differences arise

Image of Social Issues

Image of Social Issues

Image of Social Issues

Where, the level of living & wellbeing in 𝑛 subdivisions

Where, is quantity of goods & bads consumed or experienced?

Where is level of well-being, satisfaction or utility of each of 𝑘 population subgroups?

Pareto Optimality

Pareto efficiency or optimality is allocation of resources in such a fashion that it is impossible to reallocate so as to make any one individual or preference criterion better off without making at least one individual or preference criterion worse off.

Evolution of Welfare Approach