Competitive Exams: Indian Geography Climate

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3 Climatic Classification of India


The climate of India belongs to the ‘Tropical monsoon type’ . Although a sizeable part of the country lying north of the tropic of Cancer falls in the northern temperature zone but the shutting effects of the Himalayas and the existence of the Indian Ocean have played significant role in giving India a distinctive characteristics of Salient features of the Indian climate:

  1. Seasonal Reversal of windsWinter season Winds blow from NE to S Summer season Winds blow from SW to NE
  2. Formation of Alternatively High and Low Pressure Areas over the land. Winter season due to low temperature conditions high pressure area is formed. Summer season Intense heating of the land leads to the formation of thermally induced low pressure cell over NW part of the country.
  3. Seasonal and Variable Rainfall Over 80 % of annual rainfall is obtained during the five month of the rainy season. There is variability in rainfall so far time and place are considered. There is considerable spatial variation in the general distribution of rainfall.
  4. Plurality of Seasons That is constantly changing weather conditions
  5. Characterized by National Calamities.
  6. The word ‘Monsoon’ is derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausim’ Monsoon is flow pattern of the general atmosphere circulation over a wide geographical area, in which there is a clearly dominant wind in one direction in every port of the region concerned, but in which this prevailing direction is reversed (or almost reversed) from winter to summer and from summer to winter.

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