Competitive Exams: Indian Geography Coal

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for competitive exams : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Get video tutorials on geography @ Youtube Examrace Channel

Impact of Coal: Environment & Geography


  • Amounts to 60 % of total electricity generated.
  • 65 % of the commercial needs of energy.
  • Raniganj coal field is the oldest in India (1814) .
  • Indian coalfield belongs to two geological era Gondwana and tertiary. Gondwana category accounts for 99.5 % of the total reserve.
  • Gondwana category is inferior to the tertiary coal.
  • Tertiary coalfield is found in the Northeast and J&K.
  • Jharia largest in India.
  • Per capita production of Coal180 kg.
  • Important coalfields Jharkhand: Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura, Ramgarh, Auranga, Hutar, Daltonganj, Deogarh and Rajmahal. W. Bengal: Raniganj, Barjora and Darjeeling. Andhra Pradesh: Godavari valley (Singareni coalfields) MP/Chhattisgarh: Singrauli, Korba, Chirmiri, PenchKanha Tawa valley, Hasdo Arand, Jhilmili and Mohpani etc. Maharashtra: Chanda, Kamte, Umrer and Bander. Orissa Talcher and IB river
  • Coal reserve (statewise) Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, W. Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, UP, Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
  • Largest Mine reserves Jharia, Raniganj, Godavari valley. North Karanpura, Singrauli and Talcher.
  • Statewise production MP/Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, W. Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Utilisation of coal in various industries (in sequence) : Power, Steel, Cement, Fertilizer, Chemical and Paper.
  • In order to increase the availability of indegenous coking coal for steel plants , new coal washeries are being set up and capacities of existing coal beneficiation plants are being increased.
  • There are around eighteen coal washeries in the country . Seven washeries (Dugda, Bhojudih, Patherdih, Lodna, Sudamdih and Munidih) produce high grade coking coal. Similarly Kargali, Kathera, Sawang, Gidi, Barora and Nandan washeries manufacture medium grade coking coal. Durgapur I washery is under W. Bengal government and those of Jamdoba and W. Bokaro is under Tata Iron and Steel Co. , that of Nawrozabad under Western coalfield limited and Lodna and Durgapur II under the Bharat Coking Coal Ltd.
  • Problems of coal mining: poor quality coal uneven distribution transport bottleneck obsolete methods of mining, power shortage recession in coal mining environmental pollution wastage of coal.


  • Found in Nilgiri hills, Jhelum and Ganga delta in W. Bengal.