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Watch video lecture on YouTube: 8 Types of Soils in India - Geography of India

8 Types of Soils in India - Geography of India

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SOILS OF INDIA

8 Types of Soils in India are explained in this video –

The soils explained are:

Alluvial soil

  • About 43%

  • Covers an area of 143 sq.km.

  • Widespread in northern plains and river valleys.

  • In peninsular-India, they are mostly found in deltas and estuaries.

  • Humus, lime and organic matter

  • Highly fertile

  • Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputhra plain, Narmada-Tapi plain

  • Depositional soil – transported and deposited by rivers, streams.

  • Sand content decreases from west to east of the country.

  • New alluvium is termed as Khadar and old alluvium is termed as Bhangar.

  • Colour: Light Grey to Ash Grey.

  • Texture: Sandy to silty loam or clay.

  • Rich in: potash

  • Poor in: phosphorous.

  • Wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, pulses, oilseed.

Black soil

  • Cotton cultivation.

  • Deccan

  • Mature soil

  • High water retaining capacity.

  • Swells and becomes sticky when wet

  • Shrinks when dried.

  • Self-ploughing- develops wide cracks when dried.

  • Rich in: Iron, lime, calcium, potassium, aluminum and magnesium.

  • Deficient in: Nitrogen, Phosphorous and organic matter.

  • Colour: Deep black to light black.

  • Texture: Clayey

Red soil

  • Low rainfall area.

  • Omnibus group.

  • Porous, friable structure.

  • Absence of lime, kankar (impure calcium carbonate).

  • Deficient in: lime, phosphate, manganese, nitrogen, humus and potash.

  • Colour: Red because of Ferric oxide. The lower layer is reddish yellow or yellow.

  • Texture: Sandy to clay and loamy.

  • Wheat, cotton, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, potato.

Laterite soil

  • ‘Later’ which means Brick.

  • Soft when wet and hard when dried.

  • High temperature and high rainfall.

  • Formed from high leaching.

  • Lime and silica leached away

  • Organic matter removed fast by the bacteria

  • Humus content is low.

  • Rich in: Iron and Aluminum

  • Deficient in: Nitrogen, Potash, Potassium, Lime, Humus

  • Colour: Red colour due to iron oxide.

  • Rice, Ragi, Sugarcane and Cashew nuts

Forest soil

  • Regions of high rainfall.

  • Humus content is less and thus the soil is acidic.

Peat and organic soil

  • Heavy rainfall and high humidity.

  • Less vegetation

  • Dead organic matter makes alkaline.

  • Heavy soil with black colour.

Mountain and skeletal soil

  • Mountain regions of the country

  • Immature soil with low humus and acidic.

Alkaline and saline soil

Soils of India Image-1

Soils of India Image-1

Soils of India Image-1

Soils of India Image-2

Soils of India Image-2

Soils of India Image-2