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8 Types of Soils in India - Geography of India


8 Types of Soils in India are explained in this video –

The soils explained are:

Alluvial Soil

  • About 43 %
  • Covers an area of 143 sq. km.
  • Widespread in northern plains and river valleys.
  • In peninsular-India, they are mostly found in deltas and estuaries.
  • Humus, lime and organic matter
  • Highly fertile
  • Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputhra plain, Narmada-Tapi plain
  • Depositional soil – transported and deposited by rivers, streams.
  • Sand content decreases from west to east of the country.
  • New alluvium is termed as Khadar and old alluvium is termed as Bhangar.
  • Colour: Light Grey to Ash Grey.
  • Texture: Sandy to silty loam or clay.
  • Rich in: potash
  • Poor in: phosphorous.
  • Wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, pulses, oilseed.

Black Soil

  • Cotton cultivation.
  • Deccan
  • Mature soil
  • High water retaining capacity.
  • Swells and becomes sticky when wet
  • Shrinks when dried.
  • Self-ploughing- develops wide cracks when dried.
  • Rich in: Iron, lime, calcium, potassium, aluminum and magnesium.
  • Deficient in: Nitrogen, Phosphorous and organic matter.
  • Colour: Deep black to light black.
  • Texture: Clayey

Red Soil

  • Low rainfall area.
  • Omnibus group.
  • Porous, friable structure.
  • Absence of lime, kankar (impure calcium carbonate) .
  • Deficient in: lime, phosphate, manganese, nitrogen, humus and potash.
  • Colour: Red because of Ferric oxide. The lower layer is reddish yellow or yellow.
  • Texture: Sandy to clay and loamy.
  • Wheat, cotton, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, potato.

Laterite Soil

  • β€˜Later’ which means Brick.
  • Soft when wet and hard when dried.
  • High temperature and high rainfall.
  • Formed from high leaching.
  • Lime and silica leached away
  • Organic matter removed fast by the bacteria
  • Humus content is low.
  • Rich in: Iron and Aluminum
  • Deficient in: Nitrogen, Potash, Potassium, Lime, Humus
  • Colour: Red colour due to iron oxide.
  • Rice, Ragi, Sugarcane and Cashew nuts

Forest Soil

  • Regions of high rainfall.
  • Humus content is less and thus the soil is acidic.

Peat and Organic Soil

  • Heavy rainfall and high humidity.
  • Less vegetation
  • Dead organic matter makes alkaline.
  • Heavy soil with black colour.

Mountain and Skeletal Soil

  • Mountain regions of the country
  • Immature soil with low humus and acidic.

Alkaline and Saline Soil

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✍ Manishika