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6 Vegetation Divisions of India - Geography of India


Vegetation patterns of India are divided into 6 types viz. , moist tropical, dry tropical, montane subtropical, montane temperate, subalpine and alpine, explained in a lucid manner by Dr. Manishika Jain.

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Tropical Rain Forests

  • Include tropical evergreen forests and tropical semi-evergreen forests
  • Rainfall surplus of 200 cm, with a short dry season.
  • Archetypal Rain-Forests.
  • Limited within rainy slopes of the Western Ghats, plains of West Bengal and Orissa and North-eastern India.
  • Trees attain heights of about 60 m and above.
  • Ebony, mahogany and rosewood

Tropical Deciduous Forests

  • Cast leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks in summer.
  • Monsoon forests
  • Form a natural cover all over India, especially within regions having 200 and 75 cm of annual rainfall.
  • State of Kerala in India, eastern slopes of Western Ghats, north-eastern parts of the peninsular plateau, Himalaya mountains.
  • Cost-effective, less resistant to fire.
  • Moist and dry deciduous forests.

Moist Deciduous Forests

  • Eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, north-eastern part of the peninsula- east Madhya Pradesh, south Bihar and west Orissa, Shiwaliks.
  • Teak, Sal, and sandalwood.

Thorn Forests and Shrubs

  • Found in dry places where the annual rainfall is less than 70 cm.
  • North-western India, from Saurashtrain the south to Punjab plains in the north.
  • Extend towards northern Madhya Pradesh and south-west Uttar Pradesh, covering Bundelkhand plateau.
  • Dispersed trees with long roots, broadened in a radial pattern

Tidal or Mangrove Forests

  • Found along the coasts and rivers
  • Mangrove trees
  • Sundari

Temperate Forests and Grasslands

  • Various types of plants are found in the Himalayas varying altitudes.
  • The broad-leaved evergreen trees usually grow between altitudes of 1 km and 2 km- oak, chestnut and maple
  • Coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir and spruce between altitudes 1.5 km and 3 km
  • Southern slopes of the Himalayas.
  • Temperate grasslands at higher altitudes

Alpine and Tundra Vegetation

  • Altitudes above 3.6 km
  • Stunted growth
  • Silver Fir, Pine, Juniper and Birch
  • Alpine Grasslands at higher altitudes in this region.
  • Gujjar and Bakarwal make use of this region.
  • Lichen and Mosses are found

Himalayan Vegetation

  • Tropical forests in the eastern region
  • Pine and coniferous woodlands of the western Himalayas

Desert Region

  • Thar Desert
  • Short and stout, and stunted
  • Cacti, Reunjha, Khejra, Kanju, Ak etc.
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