Competitive Exams Geography Notes on Tobacco, Sugarcane, Tea in India

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Agricultural Regions of India

Tobacco

  • Rainfall: 50 - 80cm.
  • Soil: Sandy Loam soil should be rich in Potash, Nitrogen, Magnesium, Phosphoric Acid.
  • India has 17 % of total area under cultivation.
  • Variety: Nicotiana Tabaccum and Nicotiana Rustica.
  • Flues: Virginia tobacco is procured in special chambers known as Barns with artificial heat passing through metal pipes called Flues. Hence it is known as Flues cured Virginia tobacco.
  • Export: second largest exporter after USA.
  • Area: Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra in the Deccan, Bihar, Orissa, UP, West Bengal.
  • Production: Average 1000 leaf/ha Andhra Pradesh largest producer, Guntur heart of tobacco trade.
  • Exported to UK, EEU.
  • Two important ports: Madras and Kakinada.

Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarium)

  • Belongs to grass family.
  • Contains canesugar (Sucrose) .
  • It is basically a tropical crop.
  • Temperature: not above , not less than
  • Rainfall75cm 120cm.
  • Soil clay loams, Alluvial; should be rich in Nitrogen, Phosphoric and Potash.
  • Setts: All commercial plantations are made of stalk cuttings of two or three joints.
  • Ratoon crops: After the first crop has been cut , the stem begins to grow again.
  • Average Yield: 65375 kg/ha Highest in Tamil Nadu
  • Production: UP the largest producer, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana.

Tea (Camellia Tea)

  • India is the leading producer and leading exporter.
  • Varieties: Black tea leaves are dried in the sun and then fermented; Green tea far east China and Japan, there is no fermentation.
  • Climate: temp. and ; rainfall 150250 cm. ; protection against long dry weather.
  • Soil: Sandy loams are best; iron in soil is beneficial.
  • Cultivation: Assam 54.7 % ; Assam 24.3 % ; Tamil Nadu9.2 % .
  • Production: Assam21.48 % ; W. Bengal21.48 % ; Tamil Nadu13.32 % and Kerala8.34 % .
  • Export: Britain chief buyer, Russia, USA and Australia.

Coffee (Coffea)

  • Oldest among the plantation.
  • It is the highland crop of the Tropics.
  • Temperature:
  • Protection: sensitive to cold and frost and to be protected from hot dry winds.
  • Sun rays are injurious.
  • Varieties: Arabica, Robusta and Coffee Liberica (75 %)
  • Rainfall 125 cm 200 cm.
  • Height of the crop 910 mts.
  • Plucking time: Coffee Arabica between Oct. -Nov. ; Coffee Robusta between Jan-Feb.
  • Production (state wise) Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil nadu, Andhra pradesh.
  • Yield (state wise) Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.

Oilseeds

Sesamum (Sesamum Indicum)

  • It is both a Kharif crop (N. India) and Rabi (S. India) .
  • Seed contains 46 % 52 % oil.
  • Light and Sandy soils and Black Cotton soils.
  • Temperature .
  • Rainfall 4050cm.
  • India produces l/ 3rd of the total production.
  • Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, M P, Tamil Nadu.

Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea)

  • Leading in the world.
  • Needs tropical climate.
  • Susceptible to frost.
  • Khrif Crop (N. India) , Rabi (S. India) .
  • Rainfall50 - 100cm.
  • Sandy Loams.
  • Sown in June-July and harvested in four months.
  • Deccan Plateau and Gujrat.
  • Highest yield in Gujarat.
  • Temperature .

Rapeseed and Mustard Seed

  • Rapeseed is also known as Sarson, Toria and Taramira.
  • Mustard seed is also known as Rai.
  • It is a Rabi corp.
  • Alluvial soil.
  • Rainfall2540cm.
  • Maturity7590 days.
  • Leading producers: U P; Rajasthan; Punjab and Haryana.