Competitive Exams Geography Notes on Railway, Shipbuilding & Automobile Industries in India

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  • Chittaranjan Locomotives Works (CLW) , Chittaranjan, Burdwan dist. , W. Bengal, 1950. It produced first engine in 1952.
  • Diesel Locomotives Works at Varanasi, 1964.
  • The Tata Engineering and Locomotive Works (TELCO) , Jamshedpur in 1952.
  • The Integral Coach Factory at Perambur near Chennai with Swiss collaboration in 1955.
  • Bharat Movers, Bangalore.
  • Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala, 1958.


  • India ranks second in Asia next to Japan in Shipbuilding
  • Hindustan Shipyards, Vishakhapatnam, setup by M/S Scindia Steam Navigation Company, 1941. It produced first ship in 1948.
  • Cochin Shipyard Ltd. , Kochi, 1976.
  • Garden Reach Workshops, Kolkata.
  • Mazgaon Dock, Mumbai, builds esp. for Indian Navy.
  • Goa Shipyards, builds fibreglass boats.


  • First started by General Motors India Ltd. Mumbai, 1928.
  • Ford Motors in 1930, Chennai.
  • Daewoo, 1995 (Korea) , Noida.
  • Premier Automobiles, Kurla Mumbai, 1947.
  • Hindustan Motors Ltd. , Kolkata, 1948.
  • Maruti Udyog Ltd. , Gurgaon, 1983.
  • TELCO, famshedpur.
  • Hyderabad.
  • Pithampura, M P
  • Asron, Ropar in Punjab.
  • Surajpur Light Motor Vehicle (Ghaziabad) .
  • Mobikes Dharuhara (Haryana) ; Akundi, (Pune) ; Hosur (Tamil Nadu) ; Faridabad.
  • Scooters Lucknow; Satara; (Akundi) Pune; Panki; Odhav
  • India ranks second in two wheelers after China.


  • 1940; Hindustan Aircraft Ltd. , Bangalore.
  • 1964, it merged with Aeronautics India Ltd. to form Hindustan Aeronautic Ltd. (HAL) in Bangalore.
  • HAL has three divisions: 1. MIG Complex, Nasik; 2. Koraput; 3. Hyderabad. Bicycles
  • First manufacturing factory was set up in 1940, Mumbai.
  • India exports bicycles to Pakistan, Afghanistan and Srilanka.
  • Main centres: Mumbai, Asansol, Sonepat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar and Ludhiana.

Sugar Industry

  • India is the 2nd largest after Cuba, but India is the largest producer of Gur and Khandsari.
  • First factory set up in 1840 in North Bihar with Dutch help.
  • Difference between sugar industry of North and South India:
  • Previously, north India used to produce 90 % of lndia՚s sugar but now it is reduced to 3040 % , because:
  • Peninsular India has tropical climate which gives higher yields per unit area as compared to north. The sucrose content is also higher in the tropical variety of sugarcane in south India. The crushing season is also much longer in south (78 months, Oct. to May) than in north (4 months, Nov. to Feb.) . The cooperative sugar mills are better managed in south than in north.
  • Most of the mills in south are new which are equipped with modern machinery.
  • Triveni Structural Ltd. at Naini, Allahabad with the assistance of Austria.
  • Bharat Heavy Plate and Vessels Ltd. established in 1956 at Vishakhapatnam.
  • Messers Jessop & Co. Ltd. , Calcutta.
  • Richardson & Cruddas Ltd. Mumbai.
  • Larsen & Toubro Ltd. , Powai, Mumbai.

Problems of Sugar Industry

  1. Low yield of sugarcane, 67 tonnes/hectare while in Java, it is 90 and in Hawaii 121 tonnes/hectares.
  2. Short crushing season.
  3. Low rate of recovery, are 10 % , while in Java and Hawaii, it is 1416 % , highest recovery rate is in Gujarat followed by Maharashtra.
  4. High cost of production.
  5. Small and uneconomic size of mills.
  6. Old and obsolete machinery.
  7. Low per capita consumption, only 9.2 kg. per year per capita, while in cuba it is 72.2 kg.