Competitive Exams Geography Notes on Cement & Limestone Industry in India

Doorsteptutor material for competitive exams is prepared by world's top subject experts: get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Cement Industry

  • Mainly made from limestone and clay.
  • A mixture composed of 21 3rd limestone, with low magnesium content and 1/ 3rd clay.
  • Iron oxide and bauxite is also added to make cement.
  • Bauxite assists quick setting of cement; Gypsum is also added for the same.
  • On an average 250 kg. of coal is required to produce 1 tonne of cement which is 40 % of the total cost.
  • 6065 % cost is in limestone, 2025 % silica and 512 % in alumina.
  • 4 kg. gypsum, 0.4 kg. bauxite and 0.2 kg. clay is required to produce one tonne of cement.

Limestone Deposits Used for Cements

  • Assam Shivsagar, Naogaon
  • Meghalaya E and W Khasi hills and Jaintia hills.
  • Jharkhand: Palamu, Singhbhum, Shahabad.
  • M P/Chhattisgarh: Satna, Siddhi, Jabalpur, Durg, Bilaspur, Raipur, Bastar.
  • Rajasthan: Jaipur, Ajmer, Pali, SawaiMadhopur, Jhunjhunu, Bundi, Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Sirohi and Banswara.
  • Gujarat: BanasKantha, Amreli, Junagarh, Kheda, Panchmahal, Kutch.
  • Maharashtra: Chandrapur, Yawatmal, Nanded.
  • Andhra Pradesh: E. Godavari, Nalgonda, Khammam, W. Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Cuddappah. Karnataka
  • Shimoga, Gulbarga, Bijapur.
  • T N: Salem , Coimbator, Tiruchurapalli, Ramnathpuram, Tirunavelli.
  • U P: Mirzapur, Dehradun.
  • J&K: Jammu and Anantnag.

Growth of Cement Industry

  • First in 1904, in Chennai.
  • Second in 191213, Indian Cement Company Ltd. , set up in plant at Porbander.
  • 1915 Katni Cement Co. , at Katni (M. P) .
  • 1916, Lakheri, Killick Nickson՚s Bundi Portland Cement Co. established a plant.
  • In 1922, -23,6 new plants came at Dwarka (Gujarat) , Japla (Bihar) , Banmore, Mehgaon, Kymore (all in MP) , Shahbad (Karnataka) .
  • In 1934,10 out of 11 companies merged into Associated Cement Companies (ACC) .
  • Dalmia Cement Group started establishing plants after 1937.
  • The factories: 1. Dalmianagar (Bihar) , 2. Dalmiachakari Dadri (Haryana) .
  • By 1948, there were 18 cement factories in India.
  • Today, India ranks 4th after China, Japan, and USA.
  • By 2010, India is likely to become 2nd next to China.

Paper Industries

  • In India paper is made from: 6062 % bamboo (a cellulosic raw material) ; 79 % sabai grass; bagasse; rice and wheat straw; eucalyptus; pine; mulberry.
  • Chemical used: caustic soda, soda ash, sodium sulphate, chlorine, calcium bisulphate, sulphuric acid, raisin and clay, lime, ferric alumina, ammonium.
  • One tonne of paper production requires 3.54 tonnes of coal.


  • First factory 1816, in Chennai; second 1832, in Serampore, both failed. Third factory 1870, Royal Bengal Paper Mills, Bellyganj, near Kolkata. 1879 Lucknow, 1882Titagarh 1887 Pune 1892 Raniganj 1892 Kaukinara 1918Naihati By 195051, there were as many as 17 mills News Print:
  • first factory (1955) , Nepanagar in Hoshangabad (M. P) .
  • Second factory (1981) , Mysore Paper Mills, Shimoga, Karnataka.
  • Third is 1982, Hindustan Paper Mills, Vellore, Kottaiyam, Kerala.
  • Fourth, 1985, Tamil Nadu News Print and Paper Ltd. , Pugalur in Tiruchirapalli.
  • Till 1996, there were 26 news print mills were there in India.
  • Per capita paper consumption in India is 3 kg. , in . European country 300 kg. Trade:
  • Pulp and waste paper is imported from Norway, Sweden, Canada, Holland.
  • Paper board, Newsprint is imposed from Poland, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia Republic and Canada.

Problems of Paper Industry

  1. Scarcity of raw materials because of degradation of forest;
  2. Costly unconventional raw material.
  3. Growing consciousness for the preservation of forests and maintenance of ecology balance and biodiversity.
  4. Very low rate of consumption, population 16 % of world, paper production 1 % of world.
  5. Small size of uneconomic manufacturing units.

Fertilizer Industry

  1. Indian soils being generally deficient in fertilizing elements, namely P and K.
  2. 1906, first superphosphate factory was set up at Ranipet in T N
  3. In 1951, Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCI) , set up a plant at Sindri.

Public Sector Fertilizer Co

FCI incorporated in 1961; it has 4 units:

  1. Sindri;
  2. Gorakhpur;
  3. Talcher;
  4. Ramagundum (A. P) .

National Fertilizers Limited (NFL)

NFL established in 23 Aug. 1974, has 5 units:

  1. Nangal: Calcium almunium nitrate and Urea;
  2. Bhatinda;
  3. Panipat;
  4. Vijaypur.

It is largest producer of Nitrogenous fertilizer.

Fertilizers and Chemicals Travancore (FACT)

Fertilizers and Chemicals Travancore Ltd. (FACT) has three units:

  1. Udyog Mandal;
  2. Two units at Kochi.


Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. it is a gas based fertilizer plant at Thai.

Hindustan Fertilizers Corp. Ltd. (HFCL) : it has 5 units at Namrup (Assam) , one at Durgapur (W. B) , one at Barauni.

Madras Fertilizers Ltd. : it is a joint venture of India and Iran; established at Manali near Chennai.

Pyrites Phosphates and Chemicals Ltd. (PPCL) : set up in March 1960, units at Amjher (Bihar, manufactures super phosphate) , Salodipura (Rajasthan for exploration and production of Pyrites) , Mussorie (Uttaranchal where mining of rock phosphate ore is done) .

Project and Development India Ltd. (PDIL) : formerly Fertilizer Planning and Development India Ltd. , famous for engineering.

  • Cooperative Sector: IFFCO (Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Ltd.) has 24,000 cooperative societies, incorporated in 1975; has four units: Kalol (Gujarat) ; Kandla (Gujarat) ; Phulpur (U. P) ; Anola (U. P) .
  • Krishak Bharti Cooperative Ltd. (KRIBHCO) started in 1985; has a gas based urea ammonia plant at Hazira (Gujarat) .

Private Sector

  • IEL (Kanpur) ; SRC (Kota) ; DCM (Delhi) ; NF (Broach) Coromandal (Vishakhapatnam) ZACL (Goa) ; EID (Pary of Ennore) ; GSFC (Vadodra) ; SBIC (Tuticorin) ; MFC (Mangalore) .
  • Imports 1/ 4th ofthe requirements, from USA, Russia, Canada, Japan.
  • India imports largely Nitrogenous fertilizers then Potash, then Phosphate (NKP) .
  • Nitrogenous Fertilizer is produced by Gujarat (19.9 %) ; U. P (14.5 %) ; T. N (11.8 %) ; Punjab (9.6 %) ; Maharashtra (8.0 %) ; Bihar (5.4 %) .
  • In Phosphatic Fertilizer (P205) , highest is Gujarat (31.7 %) , T N (23.1 %) , then Maharashtra (14 %) . Leather
  • First tannery was set up in Kanpur in 1867, then Chennai and Kolkata, Agra, Bangalore, Mokama, Phulbari (Orissa) ; Sherbang (Gujarat) , Kapurthala (Punjab) , Paldavaram (Tiruchirapalli) , Perambur and Alluru.
  • The Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI) is situated at Chennai.
  • India exports to USA, UK, Germany, Japan, Russia, Australia.