Competitive Exams Geography Notes on Plastic, Pharma & Pesticides Industry in India

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Plastic

  • Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore, Vadodara, Vapi, Amritsar, Coimbatore, Amritsar, Barauni, Pimpri, Boniagaon, Kanpur, Mettur, Durgapur.
  • Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET) , Chennai.
  • Exports to UAE, Kuwait, Egypt, Kanya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia.

Drugs and Pharmaceuticals

Public Sector Units: India Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd (IDPL) : Established in 1961 ( 5th April) ; has 5 plants:

  1. Rishikesh synthetic drugs.
  2. Chennai surgical instruments.
  3. Gurgaon formulations.
  4. Muzaffarpur drugs and chemicals (intermediate) IDPL has 3 subsidiaries: 1. Rajasthan Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (RPDL) , Jaipur; 2. U. P Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (UPDL) , Lucknow; 3. Orissa D&P Ltd. , Bhubaneshwar

Hindustan Antibiotics Limited in 1954

  1. Maharashtra Antibiotics and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. , Nagpur;
  2. Karnataka A&P Ltd. , Bangalore;
  3. Manipur A&P Ltd, Imphal Bengal Immunity Limited (BIL) , Kolkata.
  4. Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (BCPL) , Kolkata.
  5. Smith Stanistret Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (SSPL) , Kolkata.

Pesticides

(1) Hindustan Insecticides Ltd:

  1. Udyog Mandal, Kerala;
  2. Rashayani, Maharashtra and Delhi.

(2) Subsidiary: Southern Pesticides Corporation (SPC) at Kavour.

(3) HIL produces BHC, DDT, Malatheon, IndoSulphan

Dye Stuff

  • First unit was Associated Research Lab. (AR Lab.) , 1947, Pune.
  • Atul Products, 1947, Balsar.
  • Amar Dyechem, 1954.
  • Indian Dye Stuff Ind. , 1954.
  • Alic Ind. , 1956.
  • Suhrid Gaigi.
  • Kallu Chem: Bayer, Hoechst, Ghai, Sandoz India, Kolshed, 1961.

Glass

  • First factory was established in 1941 in UP.
  • Rawmaterial used: sodaash, feldspar, limestone, dolomite, manganese dioxide, barium oxide, sulphur and copper.
  • Distribution: UP: 100 factories; important centres are: Ferozabad (Agra) , Bahzoi, Naini, Hirangau, Shokohabad, Hathras, Sasni, Jaunpur. West Bengal: 34 factories; important places: Kolkata, Howrah, Raniganj, Belgachia, Belgharia, Bellur, Sitarampur, Rishra, Durgapur, Asansol (gets sandstone from Mangalghat and Palaghat) . Maharashtra: 22 factories; Important centres: Mumbai, Talegaon, Satara, Nagpur, Kolhapur (bottles) .

Ceramics

  • China clay is found in Rajmahal Hills (Bihar) .
  • First factory established in Patharghat (Bihar) .
  • Second, Barn & Co. Raniganj (W. Bengal) .
  • Centre: Wankaner, Thanagarh, Ranipet, Roopnarayanpur, Jabalpur, Nazarbagh, Gwalior, Jaipur.
  • India exports to: Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait; imports from: China & Japan.

Chemical Industries

Sulphuric Acid

  • Fertilizer, synthetic fibre, plastic, paint, dyestuff.
  • India imports 90 % of its requirement.
  • Important Centre: Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarat.

Nitric Acid

  • Used in fertilizer and explosives.
  • Main producer: FCL՚s Trombay Unit

Alkalies

  • Common salt, limestone, coal.

Soda Ash

  • Okhla, Mithapur, Dharandhar
  • Used in glass, paper, soap, detergents.

Caustic Soda

  • Detergents, textiles, soaps, paper and pulp.
  • Mettur is the largest centre. Benzene
  • Comes from naphtha, coal.
  • Centre: Koyali, BombayPetroleum Naphtha, Durgapur (coal gas) .
  • Used in dyestuff.

Match

(1) First factory was established in Ahmedabad in 1921.

(2) Western India Match Co. (WIPCO) 1923; has 5 units: produces 65 % of India՚s production:

  1. Baraeli;
  2. Kolkata;
  3. Chennai;
  4. Ambarnath, Mumbai;
  5. Dubri, Assam.

Concentration and Distribution

  • WBengal: Jharia, Raniganj Tamil Nadu: Ramnathpuram, Tirunavelli, Chennai, Chingalput.
  • Maharashtra: Pune, Thane, Chanda, Mumbai. Gujarat: Ahmedabad, Petlad, Ambarnath
  • UP: Barelli, Meerut, Allahabad, Varanasi Karnataka: Shimoga Kerala: Thiruvanathpura A P: Hyderabad, Warrangal Assam: Dubri Rajasthan: Kota Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh: Bilaspur, Jabalpur.

Lac

  • The insect, Cerria Laca produces Laca; it lives in trees.
  • Climatic requirements: temp. and rainfall-150cm.
  • Stick lac is its crude form (like resin) .