Competitive Exams geography notes on plastic, pharma & pesticides industry in India

Plastic

  • Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore, Vadodara, Vapi, Amritsar, Coimbatore, Amritsar, Barauni, Pimpri, Boniagaon, Kanpur, Mettur, Durgapur.

  • Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET), Chennai.

  • Exports to UAE, Kuwait, Egypt, Kanya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia.

Drugs and Pharmaceuticals

Public Sector Units: India Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd (IDPL): Established in 1961 (5th April); has 5 plants:

  1. Rishikesh synthetic drugs.

  2. Chennai surgical instruments.

  3. Gurgaon formulations.

  4. Muzaffarpur drugs and chemicals (intermediate) IDPL has 3 subsidiaries: 1. Rajasthan Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (RPDL), Jaipur; 2. U.P Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (UPDL), Lucknow; 3.Orissa D&P Ltd., Bhubaneshwar

Hindustan Antibiotics Limited in 1954

  1. Maharashtra Antibiotics and Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Nagpur;

  2. Karnataka A&P Ltd., Bangalore;

  3. Manipur A&P Ltd, Imphal Bengal Immunity Limited (BIL), Kolkata.

  4. Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (BCPL), Kolkata.

  5. Smith Stanistret Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (SSPL), Kolkata.

Pesticides

(1) Hindustan Insecticides Ltd:

  1. Udyog Mandal, Kerala;

  2. Rashayani, Maharashtra and Delhi.

(2) Subsidiary: Southern Pesticides Corporation (SPC) at Kavour.

(3) HIL produces BHC, DDT, Malatheon, IndoSulphan

Dye Stuff

  • First unit was Associated Research Lab. (AR Lab.), 1947, Pune.

  • Atul Products, 1947, Balsar.

  • Amar Dyechem, 1954.

  • Indian Dye Stuff Ind., 1954.

  • Alic Ind., 1956.

  • Suhrid Gaigi.

  • Kallu Chem: Bayer, Hoechst, Ghai, Sandoz India, Kolshed, 1961.

Glass

  • First factory was established in 1941 in UP.

  • Rawmaterial used: sodaash, feldspar, limestone, dolomite, manganese dioxide, barium oxide, sulphur and copper.

  • Distribution: UP: 100 factories; important centres are: Ferozabad(Agra), Bahzoi, Naini, Hirangau, Shokohabad, Hathras, Sasni, Jaunpur. West Bengal: 34 factories; important places: Kolkata, Howrah, Raniganj, Belgachia, Belgharia, Bellur, Sitarampur, Rishra, Durgapur, Asansol (gets sandstone from Mangalghat and Palaghat). Maharashtra: 22 factories; Important centres: Mumbai, Talegaon, Satara, Nagpur, Kolhapur (bottles).

Ceramics

  • China clay is found in Rajmahal Hills (Bihar).

  • First factory established in Patharghat (Bihar).

  • Second, Barn & Co. Raniganj (W. Bengal).

  • Centre: Wankaner, Thanagarh, Ranipet, Roopnarayanpur, Jabalpur, Nazarbagh, Gwalior, Jaipur.

  • India exports to: Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait; imports from: China & Japan.

Chemical industries

Sulphuric Acid

  • Fertilizer, synthetic fibre, plastic, paint, dyestuff.

  • India imports 90% of its requirement.

  • Important Centre: Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarat.

Nitric Acid

  • Used in fertilizer and explosives.

  • Main producer: FCL's Trombay Unit

Alkalies

  • Common salt, limestone, coal.

Soda ash

  • Okhla, Mithapur, Dharandhar

  • Used in glass, paper, soap, detergents.

Caustic Soda

  • Detergents, textiles, soaps, paper and pulp.

  • Mettur is the largest centre. Benzene

  • Comes from naphtha, coal.

  • Centre: Koyali, BombayPetroleum Naphtha, Durgapur (coal gas).

  • Used in dyestuff.

Match

(1) First factory was established in Ahmedabad in 1921.

(2) Western India Match Co. (WIPCO) 1923; has 5 units: produces 65% of India's production:

  1. Baraeli;

  2. Kolkata;

  3. Chennai;

  4. Ambarnath, Mumbai;

  5. Dubri, Assam.

Concentration and Distribution

  • WBengal: Jharia, Raniganj Tamil Nadu: Ramnathpuram, Tirunavelli, Chennai, Chingalput.

  • Maharashtra: Pune, Thane, Chanda, Mumbai. Gujarat: Ahmedabad, Petlad, Ambarnath

  • UP: Barelli, Meerut, Allahabad, Varanasi Karnataka: Shimoga Kerala: Thiruvanathpura A P: Hyderabad, Warrangal Assam: Dubri Rajasthan: Kota Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh: Bilaspur, Jabalpur.

Lac

  • The insect, Cerria Laca produces Laca; it lives in trees.

  • Climatic requirements: temp. 12°C and rainfall-150cm.

  • Stick lac is its crude form (like resin).