Scheduled Tribes: Classification, Problems & Policy Measures YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Scheduled Tribes (STs) in India: 6 Classification (Tribal Welfare Committee), Policy & Reforms Scheduled Tribes (STs) in India: 6 Classification (Tribal Welfare Committee), Policy & Reforms
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  • Heterogeneous group of Population

  • 5th Schedule of Constitution

  • Article 342 – classification as ST based on geographical isolation, backwardness, poor health, cultural preservation and nervousness of contact

  • Highest share of STs is contributed by Lakshadweep (94.8%), Mizoram (94.4%), and Nagaland (86.5%).

  • Lowest proportion of STs is contributed by Uttar Pradesh (0.6%), Tamil Nadu (1.1%), & Bihar (1.3%).

  • Punjab, Chandigarh, Haryana, Delhi, and Puducherry do not have STs.

Characteristics of Tribes

Ways to Develop Tribes

Classification of Tribes

  • Racial Classification by Guha

  • Linguistic Classification

  • Geographical Classification

  • Economic Classification

  • Cultural Classification

  • Classification based on Integration

Problems of ST

  • Social problem

  • Communication gap

  • No transport

  • Poor condition

  • Lack of education

  • Poverty

Solutions

  • Rehabilitate

  • Assimilate

  • Isolate

  • Restore land

  • Social uplift

Planning

  • 2nd Five Year Plan: Establish multipurpose tribal development areas.

  • 3rd Five Year Plan: Establishment of Tribal Development Blocks 4th Five Year Plan: Expand blocks.

  • 5th Five Year Plan: Create sub plan for tribal development. ITDS (Integrated Tribal Development Project) was launched.

  • 6th Five Year Plan: Large multipurpose cooperative societies were launched.

  • 7th Five Year Plan: Identified development blocks where tribal population is in majority.

  • 8th Five Year Plan: Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) area, MADA (Modified Area Development Approach), Scattered Development Plans, and Primitive Tribe Development Plans were stressed.

  • 9th Five Year Plan: Participatory planning.

  • 10th Five Year Plan: Eradicate deprivation or exploitation of tribes.

  • 11th Five Year Plan: Develop tribal centric, tribal-participative and tribal-managed development process.

Reforms

  • Article 342: Specify tribal communities

  • Article 164: Ministry of Tribal Welfare in states – Bihar, MP, Odisha

  • Article 244: Administer Scheduled Areas and Tribes

  • Article 275: Grant fund for welfare for ST

  • Article 338: Commissioner appointed to safeguard SC/ST

  • Article 330 & 332: Reservation of seats in Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha

  • Establish tribal advisory council in each state having Scheduled Areas

  • Solve problem by development in isolation