Scheduled Tribes: Classification, Problems & Policy Measures YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Scheduled Tribes (STs) in India: 6 Classification (Tribal Welfare Committee), Policy & Reforms
  • Heterogeneous group of Population
  • 5th Schedule of Constitution
  • Article 342 – classification as based on geographical isolation, backwardness, poor health, cultural preservation and nervousness of contact
  • Highest share of STs is contributed by Lakshadweep (94.8 %) , Mizoram (94.4 %) , and Nagaland (86.5 %) .
  • Lowest proportion of STs is contributed by Uttar Pradesh (0.6 %) , Tamil Nadu (1.1 %) , & Bihar (1.3 %) .
  • Punjab, Chandigarh, Haryana, Delhi, and Puducherry do not have STs.

Characteristics of Tribes

Ways to Develop Tribes

Classification of Tribes

  • Racial Classification by Guha
  • Linguistic Classification
  • Geographical Classification
  • Economic Classification
  • Cultural Classification
  • Classification based on Integration

Problems of

  • Social problem
  • Communication gap
  • No transport
  • Poor condition
  • Lack of education
  • Poverty


  • Rehabilitate
  • Assimilate
  • Isolate
  • Restore land
  • Social uplift


  • 2nd Five Year Plan: Establish multipurpose tribal development areas.
  • 3rd Five Year Plan: Establishment of Tribal Development Blocks 4th Five Year Plan: Expand blocks.
  • 5th Five Year Plan: Create sub plan for tribal development. ITDS (Integrated Tribal Development Project) was launched.
  • 6th Five Year Plan: Large multipurpose cooperative societies were launched.
  • 7th Five Year Plan: Identified development blocks where tribal population is in majority.
  • 8th Five Year Plan: Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) area, MADA (Modified Area Development Approach) , Scattered Development Plans, and Primitive Tribe Development Plans were stressed.
  • 9th Five Year Plan: Participatory planning.
  • 10th Five Year Plan: Eradicate deprivation or exploitation of tribes.
  • 11th Five Year Plan: Develop tribal centric, tribal-participative and tribal-managed development process.


  • Article 342: Specify tribal communities
  • Article 164: Ministry of Tribal Welfare in states – Bihar, MP, Odisha
  • Article 244: Administer Scheduled Areas and Tribes
  • Article 275: Grant fund for welfare for
  • Article 338: Commissioner appointed to safeguard
  • Article 330 & 332: Reservation of seats in Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha
  • Establish tribal advisory council in each state having Scheduled Areas
  • Solve problem by development in isolation

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