NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development Youtube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 10 Geography

Chapter 1: Resources & Development

Image of Physical Environment (Nature)

Image of Physical Environment (Nature)

Image of Physical Environment (Nature)

Image of Resources of Natural And Human

Image of Resources of Natural and Human

Image of Resources of Natural And Human

Resource Classification

  • Based on origin

    • Biotic

    • Abiotic

  • Based on exhaustibility

    • Renewable

    • Non-renewable

  • Based on ownership

    • Individual – plantation, pastures

    • Community – grazing ground, village ponds

    • National – road, canal, railways

    • International - EEZ

  • Based on status of development

    • Potential – found but unutilized – Raj & Guj (wind and solar)

    • Developed - technology and feasibility

    • Stock – no technology to harness them - hydrogen

    • Reserves - subset of stock used with existing technology – water in dam or forest is reserve now but can be used in future

Problem of Resource Development

  • Depletion of resources

  • Accumulation of resources

  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources

Remedial Measures

  • Equitable distribution of resources

  • Sustainable development

  • Rio de Janeiro Summit, 1992 – Agenda 21 – combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation

Resource Planning in India

  • Identification and inventory of resources

  • Evolving planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up

  • Matching resource development plans with overall national development plans

  • Rich resource regions – attraction for colonies

Resource Conservation

  • There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed

  • 1968 – Club of Rome – resource conservation

  • 1974 – Schumacher - book “Small is Beautiful”

  • 1987- Brundtland Commission Report – Sustainable Development - Our Common Future

Land Resource

  • 43% plains – Agriculture

  • 30% - Mountains

  • 27% Plateau – Minerals and fossils

  • 3.28 million sq km – land use data for only 93% is known (rest in Assam & PoK)

  • Net sown area – 80% in Punjab & Haryana; 10% in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur & A & N. Is.

  • Forest Area – 33% as per National Forest Policy, 1952

  • Wasteland – rocky, arid and desert lands

  • 95% basic needs form land

Image of India: Wasteland In 2000

Image of India: Wasteland in 2000

Image of India: Wasteland In 2000

Land Utilization

  • Forests

  • Land not available for cultivation

    • Barren and waste land

    • Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.

  • Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)

    • Permanent pastures and grazing land,

    • Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area)

    • Culturable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years)

  • Fallow lands

    • Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year)

    • Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years)

  • Net sown area: Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area

Table of General Land Use Categories 1960-61 to 2002-03
Table of General Land Use Categories 1960-61 To 2002-03

General Land use Categories 1960-61

General Land use Categories 2002-03

Forest

Culturable Waste Land

Barren and waste land

Fallows other than Current Fallow

Area under non-agricultural use

Current Fallow

Permanent Pastures and Grazing land

Area under misc. - Tree crop and Groves

Net Sown Area

Land Degradation

  • Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa – Mining

  • Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra – Overgrazing

  • Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh – Overirrigation

Mitigate Land Degradation

  • Afforestation

  • Proper management of grazing

  • Planting of shelter belts of plants

  • Control on over grazing

  • Stabilization of sand dunes

  • Management of waste lands

  • Control of mining activities

  • Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes

Soil Classification in India - Alluvial

  • Most widespread, north, river and deltas – Duars, Chao, Terai

  • Bangar – Old, more kankar nodules

  • Khadar – New, finer and fertile

  • Has potash, phosphoric acid and lime

  • Sugarcane, paddy, wheat

  • Intensively cultivated

  • Densely populated

Black Soil

  • Black

  • Called regur soil

  • Good for cotton

  • Deccan and basaltic rock

  • Lava flow

  • Malwa, MP, Chhattisgarh

  • Fine Clay, can hold moisture

  • Rich in CaCO3, Mg, potash & lime

  • Poor in phosphorous

  • Deep cracks in hot weather

  • Sticky when wet

Red & Yellow Soil

  • On crystalline igneous rocks

  • In low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.

  • In Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern of mid-Ganga plain, piedmont zone of Western Ghats.

  • Red due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks

  • Yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form

Laterite Soil

  • From Latin “later” meaning Brick

  • High rain & high temperature

  • Result of intense leaching due to rain

  • Low humus

  • Good for manure and fertilizers

  • Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, MP, hilly areas of Orissa and Assam

  • Red laterite soils - Tamil Nadu, AP and Kerala – Cashew nuts

Arid Soil

  • Red to Brown

  • Sandy and saline

  • Dry climate, high temp., fast evaporation

  • Lower horizons with kankar nodules

Forest Soil

  • Hills and mountains

  • Loam and silt in valley sides

  • Coarse in upper slopes

  • In snow covered areas – acidic with low humus

  • Soil in lower valleys and alluvial fans - fertile

Soil Erosion

  • Deforestation

  • Over-grazing

  • Construction and mining

  • Running water makes channels – gullies

  • Land unfit for cultivation – Badlands (Chambal)

  • Top soil is washed away – sheet erosion

Conservation

  • Contour Ploughing – decrease flow – along contour lines

  • Terrace cultivation – restrict erosion (W. & C. Himalayas)

  • Strip Cropping – large fields to strips

  • Shelter belts – rows of trees – stabilize sand dunes

  • People’s management – Sukhomanjari village & Jhabua