NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources and Development

NCERT Class 10 Geography

Chapter 1: Resources & Development

Image of Physical Environment (Nature)

Image of Physical Environment (Nature)

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Image of Resources of Natural And Human

Image of Resources of Natural and Human

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Resource Classification

  • Based on origin

    • Biotic

    • Abiotic

  • Based on exhaustibility

    • Renewable

    • Non-renewable

  • Based on ownership

    • Individual – plantation, pastures

    • Community – grazing ground, village ponds

    • National – road, canal, railways

    • International - EEZ

  • Based on status of development

    • Potential – found but unutilized – Raj & Guj (wind and solar)

    • Developed - technology and feasibility

    • Stock – no technology to harness them - hydrogen

    • Reserves - subset of stock used with existing technology – water in dam or forest is reserve now but can be used in future

Problem of Resource Development

  • Depletion of resources

  • Accumulation of resources

  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources

Remedial Measures

  • Equitable distribution of resources

  • Sustainable development

  • Rio de Janeiro Summit, 1992 – Agenda 21 – combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation

Resource Planning in India

  • Identification and inventory of resources

  • Evolving planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up

  • Matching resource development plans with overall national development plans

  • Rich resource regions – attraction for colonies

Resource Conservation

  • There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed

  • 1968 – Club of Rome – resource conservation

  • 1974 – Schumacher - book β€œSmall is Beautiful”

  • 1987- Brundtland Commission Report – Sustainable Development - Our Common Future

Land Resource

  • 43% plains – Agriculture

  • 30% - Mountains

  • 27% Plateau – Minerals and fossils

  • 3.28 million sq km – land use data for only 93% is known (rest in Assam & PoK)

  • Net sown area – 80% in Punjab & Haryana; 10% in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur & A & N. Is.

  • Forest Area – 33% as per National Forest Policy, 1952

  • Wasteland – rocky, arid and desert lands

  • 95% basic needs form land

Image of India: Wasteland In 2000

Image of India: Wasteland in 2000

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Land Utilization

  • Forests

  • Land not available for cultivation

    • Barren and waste land

    • Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.

  • Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)

    • Permanent pastures and grazing land,

    • Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area)

    • Culturable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years)

  • Fallow lands

    • Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year)

    • Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years)

  • Net sown area: Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area

Table of General Land Use Categories 1960-61 To 2002-03

General Land use Categories 1960-61

General Land use Categories 2002-03


Culturable Waste Land

Barren and waste land

Fallows other than Current Fallow

Area under non-agricultural use

Current Fallow

Permanent Pastures and Grazing land

Area under misc. - Tree crop and Groves

Net Sown Area

Land Degradation

  • Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa – Mining

  • Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra – Overgrazing

  • Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh – Overirrigation

Mitigate Land Degradation

  • Afforestation

  • Proper management of grazing

  • Planting of shelter belts of plants

  • Control on over grazing

  • Stabilization of sand dunes

  • Management of waste lands

  • Control of mining activities

  • Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes

Soil Classification in India - Alluvial

  • Most widespread, north, river and deltas – Duars, Chao, Terai

  • Bangar – Old, more kankar nodules

  • Khadar – New, finer and fertile

  • Has potash, phosphoric acid and lime

  • Sugarcane, paddy, wheat

  • Intensively cultivated

  • Densely populated

Black Soil

  • Black

  • Called regur soil

  • Good for cotton

  • Deccan and basaltic rock

  • Lava flow

  • Malwa, MP, Chhattisgarh

  • Fine Clay, can hold moisture

  • Rich in CaCO3, Mg, potash & lime

  • Poor in phosphorous

  • Deep cracks in hot weather

  • Sticky when wet

Red & Yellow Soil

  • On crystalline igneous rocks

  • In low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.

  • In Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern of mid-Ganga plain, piedmont zone of Western Ghats.

  • Red due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks

  • Yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form

Laterite Soil

  • From Latin β€œlater” meaning Brick

  • High rain & high temperature

  • Result of intense leaching due to rain

  • Low humus

  • Good for manure and fertilizers

  • Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, MP, hilly areas of Orissa and Assam

  • Red laterite soils - Tamil Nadu, AP and Kerala – Cashew nuts

Arid Soil

  • Red to Brown

  • Sandy and saline

  • Dry climate, high temp., fast evaporation

  • Lower horizons with kankar nodules

Forest Soil

  • Hills and mountains

  • Loam and silt in valley sides

  • Coarse in upper slopes

  • In snow covered areas – acidic with low humus

  • Soil in lower valleys and alluvial fans - fertile

Soil Erosion

  • Deforestation

  • Over-grazing

  • Construction and mining

  • Running water makes channels – gullies

  • Land unfit for cultivation – Badlands (Chambal)

  • Top soil is washed away – sheet erosion


  • Contour Ploughing – decrease flow – along contour lines

  • Terrace cultivation – restrict erosion (W. & C. Himalayas)

  • Strip Cropping – large fields to strips

  • Shelter belts – rows of trees – stabilize sand dunes

  • People’s management – Sukhomanjari village & Jhabua

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