NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 2: Forest and Wildlife Resources YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Chapter 2: Forest & Wildlife Resources

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity

  • Immensely rich in wildlife

  • Cultivated species

  • Diverse in form and function

  • Closely integrated in a system by multiple network of interdependencies

  • Amongst world’s richest nation in biodiversity

  • India – 8% of world species

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity For Geography Image - 1

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity for Geography Image - 1

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity For Geography Image - 1

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity For Geography Image - 2

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity for Geography Image - 2

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity For Geography Image - 2

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources)

International Union For Conservation of Nature And Natural Resources For Geography Image

International Union for Conservation of Nature

International Union For Conservation of Nature And Natural Resources For Geography Image

Critically Endangered

  • Cheetah

  • Pink-headed duck

  • Mountain quail

  • Forest spotted owlet

  • Madhuca insignis (a wild variety of mahua)

  • Hubbardia heptaneuron (a species of grass)

India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2015

  • Majority increase in open forest (9.14% increase) category mainly outside forest areas, followed by Very Dense Forest (2.61% increase)

  • Total forest cover in India: 7,01,673 sq. km (increased of 3775 sq km)

  • Total forest cover as percentage of geographical area: 21.34%

  • Total tree cover in India: 92,572 sq. km (increased of 1306 sq. km)

  • Total tree cover as percentage of geographical area: 2.82%

  • State with largest total forest cover: Madhya Pradesh - 77,462 sq. km

  • State having highest forest cover as % of its area: Mizoram (88.93%)

  • Increase in carbon sink: 103 million tons CO2 equivalent

  • Improvement in forest cover in: Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka.

India State of Forest Report 2015 For Geography Image - 4

India State of Forest Report 2015 for Geography Image - 4

India State of Forest Report 2015 For Geography Image - 4

India State of Forest Report 2015 For Geography Image - 5

India State of Forest Report 2015 for Geography Image - 5

India State of Forest Report 2015 For Geography Image - 5

Forest Cover Change Matrix For India Between ISFR 2013 And ISFR 2015

Forest Cover Change for India

Forest Cover Change Matrix For India Between ISFR 2013 And ISFR 2015

  • Normal - cattle, sal, pine, rodents

  • Endangered - black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion tailed macaque, sangai

  • Vulnerable - blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin

  • Rare - Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill

  • Endemic - Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

  • Extinct – Asiatic cheetah world’s fastest land mammal - Acinonyx jubantus – extinct in 1952; pink head duck

  • Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallachiana) – HP & Arun. P. – taxol from barks, needles and roots – largest selling anticancer drug - threatened

Damage to Forests

  • During colonial period or expansion – enrichment plantation

  • Teak monoculture has damaged the natural forest in South India

  • Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) plantations in the Himalayas have replaced the Himalayan oak (Quercius sp.) and Rhododendron forests

  • Agricultural expansion (b/w 1950 to 1980 – 26,200 sq. km. area converted to agricultural area)

  • Developmental projects – 5000 sq. km. cleared for river valley project

  • Mining – Buxa tiger reserve in W. Bengal – dolomite mining

  • Grazing and fuel wood collection

  • Marginalizes indigenous population – Women affected more

  • Droughts and deforestation induced floods it’s the poor the hardest

Decline in Biodiversity

  • Habitat destruction

  • Hunting

  • Poaching

  • Over-exploitation

  • Environmental pollution

  • Poisoning

  • Forest fires

  • Over-population

  • Unequal access

  • Inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibility (Americans consume 40 times more than Somalians)

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

  • Preserves ecological diversity and our life support systems – water, air and soil.

  • Preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of species and breeding

  • Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act implemented in 1972 – protect endangered species – national parks and sanctuaries

  • Specific projects for tiger, Kashmir stag or hangul, one horned rhino, gharial, Asiatic lions

  • Full or partial protection to Indian elephant, black buck (chinkara), great Indian bustard (godawan) & snow leopard

  • Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species.

  • In 1991, for the first time plants were added to the list with six species.

Project Tiger

Project Tiger For Geography Image - 7

Project Tiger for Geography Image - 7

Project Tiger For Geography Image - 7

Tiger Population For Geography

Tiger Population for Geography

Tiger Population For Geography

Forest Area

  • Reserved Forests: More than 50%. Regarded as the most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources are concerned. (Permanent Forest Estates)

  • Protected Forests: Almost 1/3rd of total forest area and this is protected from any further depletion. (Permanent Forest Estates)

  • Unclassed Forests: These are other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.

  • MP – 75% forest as permanent forest estates

  • Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, HP, Orissa and Rajasthan – Protected

  • J & K, Andhra Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Maharashtra – Reserved

  • All NE states and parts of Gujarat – High percent of unclassed forest

Conservation of Forest

  • Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan: Villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.

  • 5 villages in Alwar, Rajasthan: 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’ - own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting, and are protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments

  • Chipko – Himalayas

  • Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya – crop without chemicals

  • Joint forest management (JFM) – 1988 by Orissa – local community and restoration of degraded forests

  • Mundas & Santhal of Chhota Nagpur region worship mahua (Bassia latifolia) and kadamba (Anthocaphalus cadamba) trees

  • Tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and mango (Mangifera indica) trees during weddings.

  • Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan, herds of blackbuck, (chinkara), nilgai and peacocks