NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 3: Water Resources YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Chapter 3: Water Resources

Why? – Water Wars??

“Water, water everywhere nor a drop to drink”

  • 3/4th World is water – water is renewable

  • Why global water scarcity? (by 2025 – 2 billion without water)

  • 96.5% in oceans

  • 2.5% as freshwater – (of it 70% in icecaps & 30% as groundwater)

  • India gets 4% of global rain & ranks 133 in water availability per person per annum

  • Total renewable water resources of India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum

Why Scarcity?

  • Not due to unequal distribution of rain (dry areas of Rajasthan)

  • Over- exploitation

  • Excessive use

  • Unequal access to water among different social groups

  • Large population – more demand for water (domestic & agri. use)

  • Scarcity even in water abundant areas (like cities)

  • Industrialization & Urbanization (ground water pumping devices)

  • Bad quality of water – polluted by chemicals, fertilizers & pesticides

  • Water stress - when water availability is less than 1,000 m3 per person per day (by Falken Mark)

Multi-Purpose River Projects & Integrated Water Resources Management

  • Historical – dams of stone, canal for irrigation

  • 1st Century B.C.: Sringaverapura near Allahabad - water harvesting system channeling the flood water of Ganga.

  • Chandragupta Maurya: Dams, lakes and irrigation systems were built.

  • Irrigation works: Kalinga, (Orissa), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), etc.

  • 11th Century: Bhopal Lake - one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.

  • 14th Century: Tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to Siri Fort area.

Dams – Temples of Modern India (JL Nehru)

Dams - Temples of Modern India For Geography Image - 1

Dams - Temples of Modern India for Geography Image - 1

Dams - Temples of Modern India For Geography Image - 1

Dams Classification

  • Based on height – large, medium, small

  • Based on material - timber, embankment or masonry

Dams Classification For Geography Image - 2

Dams Classification for Geography Image - 2

Dams Classification For Geography Image - 2

Limitations of Damming

  • Poor sediment flow

  • Excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir - rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers’ aquatic life.

  • Fragment rivers – migration of aquatic fauna & spawning gets difficult

  • Reservoirs on floodplains - submerge existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition

  • Farmers move to water intensive crop – salinization

  • Rising gap b/w rich and poor

  • Gives rise to inter-state disputes (allowing Cauvery water/Indus water)

  • Displacement of local people

  • Narmada Bachao Andolan & Tehri Dam Andolan

Multipurpose For Geography Image - 3

Multipurpose for Geography Image - 3

Multipurpose For Geography Image - 3

Ironical Situation

  • Made to control floods – but increased floods by sedimentation

  • Situation of Gujarat & Maharashtra in 2006 – devastates property & soil erosion

  • Sedimentation - flood plains were deprived of silt, natural fertilizer, further adding on to the problem of land degradation.

  • Induced earthquakes

  • Caused waterborne diseases and pests

  • Pollution resulting from excessive use of water

Alternative – Water Harvesting System

  • Hill and mountainous regions - Diversion channels like ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ of Western Himalayas for agriculture.

  • Rooftop rain water harvesting - store drinking water in Rajasthan – to tanks/tankas (1st rain not collected) – Rainwater or Palar Pani - purest water form; also in Shillong

  • Shillong so close to Mawsynram – still acute water shortage

  • Flood plains of Bengal – Inundation channels to irrigate their fields.

  • Arid and semi-arid regions - agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures – water collected and soil moistened - ‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in Alwar.

  • In Rajasthan – rooftop harvesting declined by Rajasthan Canal

  • Tamil Nadu - first and the only state in India to make roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state.

Rooftop Harvesting & Tankas

Rooftop Harvesting and Tankas For Geography Image - 4

Rooftop Harvesting and Tankas for Geography Image - 4

Rooftop Harvesting and Tankas For Geography Image - 4

Rooftop Harvesting and Tankas For Geography Image - 5

Rooftop Harvesting and Tankas for Geography Image - 5

Rooftop Harvesting and Tankas For Geography Image - 5

Bamboo Drip Irrigation System

  • 18-20 liter water enter bamboo pipe system & reduce to 20-80 drops per minute

  • In Meghalaya – 200 years old technique

  • From springs on hilltop to low level by gravity

  • Fertilizers can be used with high efficiency

  • Water used at maximum level

  • Low operation cost

  • Low initial cost

  • Weed cannot absorb water

  • Maximum crop yield

  • Nutrient loss is minimized

  • Can pass through road

Bamboo Drip Irrgation System For Geography Image - 6

Bamboo Drip Irrgation System for Geography Image - 6

Bamboo Drip Irrgation System For Geography Image - 6

Bamboo Drip Irrgation System For Geography Image - 7

Bamboo Drip Irrgation System for Geography Image - 7

Bamboo Drip Irrgation System For Geography Image - 7