NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture

Chapter 4: Agriculture

  • 2/3rd people in agriculture

  • Food grains

  • Raw material for industry

Primitive Farming

  • In small areas

  • Primitive tools – hoe, sticks

  • Monsoon dependent

  • Slash and burn agriculture

  • ‘Milpa’ in Mexico

  • ‘Masole’ in Central Africa

  • ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela

  • ‘Roca’ in Brazil

  • ‘Ladang’ in Indonesia

  • ‘Ray’ in Vietnam

  • Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya Pradesh

  • ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh

  • ‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Orissa

  • ‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats

  • ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’ in SE Rajasthan

  • ‘Khil’ in the Himalayan belt

  • ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand

  • ‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region

  • Pamlou in Manipur

  • Dipa in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • High population

  • Labor intensive

  • More chemicals and irrigation

  • Small landholdings- division of land

Commercial Farming

  • High HYV, fertilizer, chemicals

  • Large land

  • Mechanized

  • Rice - commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab; in Orissa- subsistence

Plantation Cropping

  • Single crop over large area

  • interface of agriculture and industry

  • Large land

  • Capital intensive

  • Migrant laborers

  • Tea in Assam and N. Bengal

  • Coffee in Karnataka

  • Good transport to reach market – Market oriented

Paddy (3 Crops in Assam, Bihar & Orissa - Aus, Aman and Boro), Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Tur, Moong, Urad, Cotton, Jute, Groundnut and Soyabean

Crops and Seasons in India

Crops and Seasons

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  • Largest after China

  • Kharif crop

  • High temperature (above 25°C) and high humidity

  • Annual rainfall above 100 cm (if less – irrigation)

  • Plains of north and NE India, coast & deltaic region

  • By canal & tubewell in Raj, Punjab, Haryana & west UP


  • Second after rice

  • North and NW India

  • Rabi crop

  • Cool growing season

  • Bright sunshine at ripening

  • Rain 50-75 cm

  • 2 zones - Ganga-Satluj plains in NW & black soil in Deccan

  • Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of MP


  • Jowar, bajra, ragi – coarse grains - High nutrition

  • Jowar – 3rd in area & production, rain-fed, in moist areas

  • Jowar – Largest producer is Maharashtra; Karnataka, AP & MP

  • Bajra - sandy & shallow black soil

  • Bajra – Largest is Rajasthan; then UP, Maharashtra, Gujarat & Haryana

  • Ragi – Dry, grows on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils; has iron, calcium & roughage

  • Ragi – Largest is Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, also in HP, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh


  • Food and fodder

  • Kharif crop

  • Temperature 21°C to 27°C

  • Old alluvial soil

  • In Bihar - grown in rabi season also.

  • Karnataka, UP, Bihar, AP & MP


  • Largest producer and consumer in world

  • Protein source

  • Tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram

  • All leguminous (nitrogen fixation) except tur

  • Can grow in dry conditions

  • MP, UP, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka


  • Tropical & subtropical crop

  • Hot and humid climate

  • Temperature of 21°C to 27°C

  • Annual rainfall between 75cm-100 cm

  • India second after Brazil

  • UP, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, AP, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana


  • Largest producer in the world

  • 12% of total area

  • Groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower

  • Groundnut – kharif, accounts for 50% of oilseeds, Largest is AP then T. Nadu, Karnataka & Gujarat

  • Linseed & Mustard – Rabi (mainly Maharashtra)

  • Sesamum - kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south India.

  • Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.


  • Plantation

  • Beverage crop

  • Now owned by Indians

  • Tropical and sub-tropical climates

  • Deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter

  • Warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year

  • Frequent showers evenly year round for growth of tender leaves.

  • Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri in WB, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

  • HP, Uttaranchal, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura

  • Largest producer as well as exporter


  • 4% of world production

  • Arabica variety brought from Yemen

  • Started in Babubudan hills

  • Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu


  • Largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world

  • 13% of world’s vegetables

  • Mangoes of Maharashtra, AP, UP, WB

  • Oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya)

  • Bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu

  • Litchi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

  • Pineapples of Meghalaya

  • Grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra

  • Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of J & K and HP


  • Equatorial crop

  • 5th in world in natural rubber production

  • Moist and humid climate

  • Rainfall of more than 200 cm

  • Temperature above 25°C

  • Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya


  • Cotton – 3rd largest in world, dry black soil of Deccan, high temp, light rain, 210 frost free days, kharif, 6-8 months to mature; Maharashtra, Gujarat, MP, Karnataka, AP, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and UP

  • Jute – golden fiber, well-drained soil, high temp., West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya – high cost & now shift to nylon

  • Hemp

  • Silk – Silkworms – sericulture


  • Collectization

  • Consolidation of holdings – 1st Five Year Plan

  • Cooperation

  • Abolition of zamindari

  • Green & White Revolution – but concentrated to few areas

  • Crop insurance & Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS)

  • Grameen banks

  • Cheap loans & Kisan credit cards

  • Gandhiji- Gram Swarajya

  • Vinoba Bhave – Bhoodan- Gramdam (bloodless revolution) – 80 acre land by Ram Chandra Reddy t0 80 landless laborers

Agriculture - Role in Economy

  • Share in GDP declining since 1951

  • Employment to 263 million people (with >50% as agri. laborers)

  • Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

  • Agricultural universities

  • Veterinary services and animal breeding centers

  • Horticulture development; R & D


  • Farmers facing international competition

  • Decrease in subsidies

  • Decrease in import duties on agricultural products

  • Farmers withdrawing investment from agriculture

Food Security

  • To the remote areas

  • By Buffer stock & PDS (at subsidized price by ration shops) by FCI

  • FCI provides Minimum Support Price to farmers

  • Food to common man at affordable rate

  • Increase food production

  • Free trade in grains for massive employment

  • Shift from food crops to fruits & vegetables – led to decrease in land under crop

  • Fertilizers shows good result but now are culprits of land degradation

  • Unsustainable pumping – reduced water in aquifers


  • Cotton belts – attracted Britishers (Manchester & Liverpool)

  • Champaran – farmers forced to grow indigo & no foodgrains for families

  • Improve marginal farmers

  • Gene Revolution – genetic engineering – hybrid seeds

  • Organic farming – neem leaves

  • Diverse crops from cereal to high value crops like fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables (import cereal & export like Italy & Israel)

  • Bio-diesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation than rice or sugarcane