NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Mineral and Energy Resources YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Chapter 5: Minerals & Energy Resources

Why We Need Minerals?

  • Everything from pin to ship

  • Toothpaste - silica, limestone, aluminum oxide and various phosphate

  • Fluoride – reduce cavities

  • Toothpaste are white – titanium oxide (from rutile, ilmenite & anatase)

  • Toothpaste sparkle – mica

  • Tube – made of plastics from petroleum

  • Body requires 0.3% minerals of total nutrients

  • Homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure

  • Hard as diamond & soft as talc (Mohs scale – measure hardness)

Mineral Occur as ORE

  • Rocks are combination of minerals

  • Colors, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density

  • Igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals – in cracks, crevices, faults or joints.

  • Smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes

  • Sedimentary rocks - occur in beds or layers – gypsum, potash & sodium salt

  • Alluvial deposits in valley floor; placer – gold, silver, tin, platinum

  • Ocean water – salt, magnesium, bromine

  • Coal mining – Jowai & Cherrapunjee by long narrow tunnel – Rat hole mining

  • Sedimentary rock in Assam and Gujarat – petroleum deposit

Mineral Occur As ORE For Geography Image - 1

Mineral Occur as ORE for Geography Image - 1

Mineral Occur As ORE For Geography Image - 1

Iron Ore – Ferrous

  • Magnetite is finest – 70% iron – has magnetic property

  • Hematite – lower iron (50-60%) – industrial use

  • Top producer – Karnataka > Orissa > Chhattisgarh

  • Orissa (Badampahar mines in Mayurbhanj & Kendujhar)-Jharkhand belt (Gua & Noamundi mines in Singhbhum): Hematite

  • Durg-Bastar (Bailadila -14 deposits) -Chandrapur belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra - Hematite - Exported to Japan & South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.

  • Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka - Kudermukh – 100% export unit and amongst largest in the world. Transported as slurry by pipe to port near Mangalore.

  • Maharashtra (Ratnagiri) -Goa belt - very high quality & exported by Marmagao port

Manganese – Ferrous

  • Used in steel and ferro-manganese alloy

  • 10 kg Mn used to make 1 ton steel

  • Used on bleaching powder, insecticide & paint

  • Orissa (1/3rd of total) > MP > Karnataka – production

Copper – Non-Ferrous

  • India is deficient

  • Mainly used in cables, conductors & chemical Ind.

  • Balaghat Mines (MP) – 52% production

  • Singhbhum in Jharkhand

  • Khetri in Rajasthan

Bauxite – Non-Ferrous

  • Ore of Aluminum

  • Decomposition of rocks rich in aluminum silicates

  • Light, conductive and malleable

  • Highest production by Orissa (45% - max. in Panchpatmali in Koratpur), then Gujarat & Jharkhand

  • Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni

  • Napoleon III – used button & utensils of Al (lower people used gold & silver), then 30 years later Al used by beggars of France

Mica – Non-Metallic

  • Layered into sheets

  • Di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage

  • Northern edge of the Chottanagpur plateau.

  • Koderma, Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand

  • Ajmer – Rajasthan

  • Nellore – Andhra Pradesh

Limestone – Rock Minerals

  • Carbonates and sedimentary rocks

  • Used in cement ind. & smelting of iron ore

  • Production order – AP>MP> Raj.

Mining & Conservation

  • Mining – killer industry

  • Pulmonary diseases

  • Water contamination

  • Slurry waste

  • Collapse of roof, inundation and fires

  • Workable deposits – only 1% of crust

  • Replenishment < Consumption

  • Finite and non-renewable resource

  • Recycling of metals

  • Energy saved is energy produced

Energy Resources

  • Conventional – firewood & cattle dung cake (rural -70% energy), coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity

  • Non-Conventional - solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas & atomic energy

Coal – Fossil Fuel

  • Formed by compression of plants

  • Peat – low carbon, high moisture (decaying in swamps)

  • Lignite – low grade, brown – soft and high moisture (Neyveli – T. Nadu)

  • Bituminous – Buried deep and higher temperature – in commercial use – smelting in blast furnace

  • Anthracite – High quality

Coal Deposits

  • Gondwana (>200 mya): Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys

  • Tertiary (< 50 mya): NE states - Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

  • Bulky – so heavy ind. & thermal plant near coalfields

Petroleum

  • Nodal industry for fertilizer, textile etc.

  • Called liquid gold

  • With anticlines and fault traps in tertiary rocks

  • In Anticlines - oil is trapped in crest of upfold

  • Fault trap b/w porous & non-porous rock (gas over oil)

  • 63% production - Mumbai High, 18% from Gujarat and 16% from Assam

  • Ankeleshwar - Gujarat

  • Assam - oldest oil producing state (Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan)

Natural Gas

  • Clean energy

  • With or without petroleum

  • Low CO2 emission

  • Krishna- Godavari basin, Mumbai High, Gulf of Cambay & A & N Is.

  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG ) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels

  • 1700 km pipeline: Hazira (Guj.) -Bijaipur (MP) –Jagdishpur (UP) links Mumbai High and Bassien

  • HBJ - Gas daily to 3 power houses at Kawas (Gujarat), Anta (Rajasthan) and Auraiya (U.P.) & 6 fertilizer plants at Bijapur, Sawai Madhopur, Jagdishpur, Shahjahanpur, Aonla and Babrala

Electricity

  • Thermal – Use coal, petrol & gas

  • Hydel – Bhakra Nangal, Damodar etc.

  • Nuclear – Uranium & thorium form Jharkhand & Aravallis; monazite from Kerala (thorium)

Non-Conventional

  • Solar – Sun – Madhapur in Bhuj (sterilize milk can)

  • Wind - Tamil Nadu (Nagarcoil to Madurai), AP, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Lakshadweep & Jaisalmer

  • Biogas – Gobar gas – kerosene, dung cake, charcoal

  • Tidal – Gulf of Kuchchh

  • Geothermal - Parvati valley near Manikaran in HP & Puga Valley, Ladakh

Tough Go! Race to Be 100% Renewable

  • Sweden – Aim to be 1st nation to 100% fossil fuel free

  • Costa Rica - carbon-neutral by 2021

  • Nicaragua – 90% by 2020

  • Scotland – mainly wind – meet 97% household needs

  • Germany – leads in solar – met 78% household needs