NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries

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Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries

Economic Strength is Measured by Manufacturing

Economics Strength Is Measured By Manufacturing For Geograph …

Economics Strength is Measured by Manufacturing

Factors Affecting Industrial Location

Factors Affecting Industrial Location For Geography Image - …

Factors Affecting Industrial Location

Classification of Industries

Based on

  • Raw Material: Agro-based, mineral based

  • Role: Key/Main, consumer

  • Investment: Small scale, cottage or large scale

  • Ownership: Private, public, joint or cooperatives

  • Weight: Heavy or light

Textile Industry

  • 14% of industrial prod.

  • 35 million people employed (next to agriculture)

  • 24% foreign exchange earning

  • 4% to GDP

  • Cotton mills (1st in 1854 - Mumbai) now 1962 mills with 80% in private – handloom, powerloom

  • Previously – Maharashtra & Gujarat (cotton, mkt. & port)

  • Spinning (Maha, Guj & T. Nadu); weaving (khadi-charkha) decentralized

  • Export yarn – Japan, US, UK, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka

  • 2nd largest spindles next to China

Textile Industry

  • 14% of industrial prod.

  • 35 million people employed (next to agriculture)

  • 24% foreign exchange earning

  • 4% to GDP

  • Cotton mills (1st in 1854 - Mumbai) now 1962 mills with 80% in private – handloom, powerloom

  • Previously – Maharashtra & Gujarat (cotton, mkt. & port)

  • Spinning (Maha, Guj & T. Nadu); weaving (khadi-charkha) decentralized

  • Export yarn – Japan, US, UK, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka

  • 2nd largest spindles next to China

Jute Industry

  • Largest producer of jute and jute goods

  • 2nd exporter after Bangladesh

  • Most mills in W. Bengal – Hugli river (1st at Rishra)

  • Partition – mills in India, production in Bangladesh

  • Why good location? Inexpensive water, cheap labour, producing areas, transport network, banking and insurance

  • Support 2.6 lakh directly & 40 lakh indirectly

  • Competition with synthetic fiber

  • 2005- National Jute Policy

  • Mkt- U.S.A., Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, U.K. and Australia

  • Env. Friendly and biodegradable

Sugar Industry – Gur & Khandsari

  • RM – bulky

  • Transport reduces sucrose

  • 60% in UP & Bihar

  • Shifting to south & west – Maharashtra – higher sucrose, cooperatives & cool climate for long crushing season

Iron & Steel Industry

  • Production & consumption is index of development

  • Iron : coking coal : manganese = 4:2:1

  • 2016 – India 4th in crude oil production

  • Largest producer of sponge iron

  • Per capita consumption was 32 kg

  • China- largest producer & consumer

  • Max. conc. in Chotanagpur plateau (high grade,

Cheap labor, low cost)

  • Poor performance – low productivity, erratic power,

High cost of coking coal, poor infrastructure

Iron And Steel Industry For Geography

Iron and Steel Industry

Aluminum Industry

  • 2nd after iron and steel

  • Light

  • Resistant to corrosion

  • Good conductor

  • Malleable

  • Strong when mixed with other metals

  • Bauxite – RM – bulky & red

  • 8 plants – NALCO & BALCO (W. Bengal), Kerala, UP, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, T. Nadu

Chemical Industry

  • 3% of GDP

  • 3rd largest in Asia

  • 12th in world

  • Inorganic – H2SO4, synthetic fiber, soda ash, alkalies, soap, detergent

  • Organic: Petrochemical, rubber, plastic, dyes, pharma, drugs

Fertilizer Industry

  • NPK

  • Potash is imported

  • 3rd largest in nitrogenous fertilizer in world

  • 10 PSU & 1 cooperative (Hazira, Gujarat)

  • Green revolution & land degradation

  • Neem coated Urea – slow dissolution

Cement Industry

  • 1st in 1904 – Chennai

  • Expanded after 1989 – decontrol of price & distribution

  • Large & mini-plants

  • Construction

  • Meet local demands

Automobile Industry

  • Jump in 15 years

  • FDI

  • Delhi, Jamshedpur, Pune, Indore, Hyderabad, Bangalore

ICT – Software parks, BPOs

Industrial Pollution

  • Air pollution – smoke, toxic gases (Bhopal gas tragedy)

  • Noise pollution

  • Thermal pollution – hot water in rivers, birth defects & cancers (effluents)

  • Water pollution – discharge in rivers

Control of Pollution

  • 1 liter discharge pollute 8 times quantity of fresh water

  • Reuse & recycle water

  • Harvest rainwater

  • Treat effluents going in water

  • Treatment types

    • Primary: mechanical – grinding, sedimentation

    • Secondary: biological

    • Tertiary: recycle waste water

  • Overdrawing of ground water – to be regulated (energy efficiency)

  • NTPC – ISO EMS 14001 – proactive approach preserve env., minimize waste, green belts, decrease pollution & monitoring

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

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