NCERT Class 12 Geography Part 1 Chapter 2: World Population – Distribution, Density and Growth YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 12 Geography Part 1 Chapter 2: World Population Distribution, Density and Growth

Patterns of Population – Distribution & Density

  • The world at the beginning of 21st century recorded the presence of over 6 billion population.

  • Asia has many places where people are few and few place where people are very many

  • 90% of the world population lives in about 10% of its land area.

  • The 10 most populous countries of the world contribute about 60% of the world’s population. Of these 10 countries, 6 are located in Asia like China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan

Density of Population

  • Density = Population/Area

  • it is necessary to understand the ratio between the numbers of people to the size of land

  • Densely populated area - North –Eastern part of U.S.A., North-Western part of Europe, South, South-East and East Asia.

  • Other areas like those near the North and South Poles, the hot and the cold deserts and high rainfall zones near the Equator have very low density of population. These are the sparsely populated regions of the world with less than 01 person per sq km.

Factors Influencing Distribution of Population

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Image of a Factors Influencing Distribution of Population

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  • Mediterranean regions were inhabited from early periods in history due to their pleasant climate

  • Areas which have fertile loamy soils have more people living on them as these can support intensive agriculture

  • The Ganga plains are among the most densely populated areas of the world while the mountains zones in the Himalayas are scarcely populated

  • Water is used for drinking, bathing and cooking – and also for cattle, crops, industries and navigation

  • The Kobe-Osaka region of Japan is thickly populated because of the presence of a number of industries.

  • Skilled and semi–skilled workers move to these areas and make them densely populated. Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa is one such good example.

Population Growth

  • The population growth or population change refers to the change in number of inhabitants of a territory during a specific period of time. This change may be positive as well as negative.

  • Population change in an area is an important indicator of economic development, social upliftment and historical and cultural background of the region.

  • Natural Growth = Births – Deaths

  • Actual Growth of Population : This is Births – Deaths + In Migration – Out Migration

  • Positive and negative population growth rate

Developments in Human Geography

  • Colonial Period – Exploration and Description – imperial and trade interests

  • Colonial Period – Regional Synthesis – region as a part of whole

  • 1930s through InterWar Period – Areal Differentiation – uniqueness and difference of region

  • Late 1950s to 1960s – Spatial Organization – quantitative and statistical techniques – quantitative revolution

  • 1970s – Emergence of radical, humanistic and welfare schools – discontented with quantitative revolution

  • 1990s – Post Modernism in geography – universal theories to explain human conditions were questioned – emphasis on understanding local context

Components of Population Change

  • The crude birth rate (CBR) is expressed as number of live births in a year per thousand of women.

  • CDR is expressed in terms of number of deaths in a particular year per thousand of population in particular region

  • By and large mortality rates are affected by the region’s demographic structure, social advancement and levels of its economic development

  • Migration: When people move from one place to another, the place they move from is called the Place of Origin and the place they move to is called the Place of Destination. Migration can be seasonal, permanent or temporary

  • Immigration: Migrants who move into a new place are called Immigrants.

  • Emigration: Migrants who move out of a place are called Emigrants.

  • The Push factors make the place of origin seem less attractive for reasons like unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.

  • The Pull factors make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin for reasons like better job opportunities and living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.

Trends in Population Growth

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  • After the evolution and introduction of agriculture about 8,000 to 12,000 years ago, the size of population was small – roughly 8 million.

  • In 1st century – was below 300 million

  • Around 1750 – industrial revolution – 550 million

  • Human population increased more than ten times in the past 500 hundred years.

  • In the twentieth century itself the population has increased four times.

  • Nearly 80 million people are added each year.

  • The steam engine replaced human and animal energy and also provided mechanised energy of water and wind

  • Inoculation against epidemics and other communicable diseases, improvement in medical facilities and sanitation contributed to a rapid decline in death rates throughout the world.

  • It took more than a million years for the human population to attain the one billion mark. But it took only 12 years to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion

Population Doubling Time

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  • When a small annual rate is applied to a very large population, it will lead to a large population change

  • The growth of population is low in developed countries as compared to developing countries. There is negative correlation between economic development and population growth

  • Even if the growth rate continues to decline, the total population grows each year

  • The annual population growth rate in India is 1.9 per cent. At this rate India’s population of over 1 billion will double in 36 years. Some developed countries will take 318 years to double their population whereas some countries still do not show symptoms of doubling their population

Impact of Population Change

  • Depletion of resources

  • HIV/AIDS epidemics – higher death rate and reduced life expectancy

Demographic Transition

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Image of a Demographic Transition

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  • Demographic transition theory can be used to describe and predict the future population of any area. The theory tells us that population of any region changes from high births and high deaths to low births and low deaths as society progresses from rural agrarian and illiterate to urban industrial and literate society.

  • The first stage has high fertility and high mortality because people reproduce more to compensate for the deaths due to epidemics and variable food supply. The population growth is slow, mainly agriculture, low life expectancy

  • Fertility remains high in the beginning of second stage but it declines with time. This is accompanied by reduced mortality rate. Improvements in sanitation and health conditions lead to decline in mortality. Because of this gap the net addition to population is

  • high.

  • In the last stage, both fertility and mortality decline considerably. The population is either stable or grows slowly. The population becomes urbanised, literate and has high technical knowhow and deliberately controls the family size

  • Population Control Measures: Family planning - Propaganda, free availability of contraceptives and tax disincentives for large families

  • Thomas Malthus in his theory (1793) stated that the number of people (geometric) would increase faster than the food supply (arithmetic). Any further increase would result in a population crash caused by famine, disease and war. The preventive checks are better than the physical

  • checks. For the sustainability of our resources, the world will have to control the rapid population increase.