NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 9 Planning Sustainable Development YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 9: Planning & Sustainable Development| CBSE | English

NCERT Class 12 Geography of India Chapter 9 Planning Sustainable Development

What is Planning?

  • Planning involves the process of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal
  • The sectoral planning means formulation and implementation of the sets of schemes or programmes aimed at development of various sectors of the economy such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services.
  • There is no uniform economic development over space in any country. Some areas are more developed and some lag behind. This uneven pattern of development over space necessitates that the planners have a spatial perspective and draw the plans to reduce regional imbalance in development. This type of planning is termed as regional planning.
  • Planning commission is statutory body headed by Prime Minister and Deputy Chairman. 1st five-year plan in 1951 - 52. Two successive droughts during mid-sixties (1965 - 66 and 1966 - 67) and war with Pakistan in 1965 forced plan holiday in 1966 - 67 and 1968 - 69. The approach paper of the Eleventh Plan entitled. β€œTowards Faster and More Inclusive Growth” . Later Niti Aayog was formed with bottom up approach to development.
Planning Approach
  • Target area – remained economically backward; sometimes resource-rich region also remain backward
  • In the 8th Five-year Plan special area programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern states, tribal areas and backward areas
Planning Approach
  • Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttaranchal) , Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu. The National Committee on the Development of Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all the hill areas in the country having height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas - development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry
  • Drought Prone Area Program: Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets. Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labor-intensive civil works. However, later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes,
  • afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services - development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoration of ecological balance, adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level
  • Planning Commission of India (1967) identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country prone to drought. Irrigation Commission (1972) introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas.
Planning Commission
  • Bharmaur tribal area comprises Bharmaur and Holi tehsils of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh. It is a notified tribal area since 21 November 1975. β€˜Gaddi’ , a tribal community - Gaddiali dialect and transhumance, inhabits Bharmaur. Harsh climate conditions, low resource base and fragile Environment, total population of Bharmaur sub-division was 37,246 i.e.. 20 persons per sq. km. experienced geographical and political isolation and socio-economic deprivation
  • The process of development of tribal area of Bharmaur started in 1970s when Gaddis were included among β€˜scheduled tribes’ . Under the Fifth Five Year Plan, the tribal sub-plan was introduced in 1974 and Bharmaur was designated as one of the five Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Development of infrastructure in terms of schools, health care facilities, potable water, roads, communications and electricity. However, the villages located along the river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas are the main beneficiaries of infrastructural development. The remote villages in Tundah and Kugti areas still do not have sufficient infrastructure.
  • The female literary rate in the region increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 42.83 percent in 2001
Planning Approach
  • Target area – remained economically backward; sometimes resource-rich region also remain backward
  • In the 8th Five-year Plan special area programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern states, tribal areas and backward areas

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development
  • Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment
  • In the post-World War II era, the concept of development was synonymous to economic growth, which is measured in terms of temporal increase in gross national product (GNP) and per capita income/per capita consumption.
  • Even the countries having high economic growth, experienced speedy rise in poverty because of its unequal distribution. Therefore, in 1970s, the phrases such as redistribution with growth and growth and equity were incorporated in the definition of development. Improving the well-being and living standard of people, availing of the health, education, and equality of opportunity and ensuring political and civil rights. By 1980s, development emerged as a concept encapsulating widespread improvement in social as well as material wellbeing of all in a society

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development
  • New models – The publication of β€˜The Population Bomb’ by Ehrlich in 1968 and β€˜The Limits to Growth’ by Meadows and others in 1972
  • The Commission gave its report (also known as Brundtland Report) entitled β€˜Our Common Future’ in 1987. The report defines sustainable development as a β€œdevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
  • Sustainable development takes care of ecological, social, and economic aspects of development during the present times

Indira Gandhi Canal Project

Indira Gandhi Canal
Indira Gandhi Canal
  • Conceived by Kanwar Sain in 1948, the canal project was launched on 31 March 1958. The canal originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert (Marusthali) of Rajasthan.
  • The command area of Stage-I lies in Ganga nagar, Hanumangarh and northern part of Bikaner districts. The command area of Stage-II is spread over Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur, and Churu districts covering culturable command area of 14.10 lakh ha. It comprises desert land dotted with shifting sand dunes and temperature soaring to in summers.
  • All the lift canals of Indira Gandhi Canal system originate at the left bank of main canal while all the canals on the right bank of main canal are flow channels
  • Irrigation in Stage-I command area of the canal was introduced in early 1960s, whereas, the command area of Stage-II began receiving irrigation in mid-1980s
  • The availability of soil moisture for a longer period of time and various afforestation and pasture development programmes under CAD have resulted in greening the land. This has also helped in reducing wind erosion and siltation of canal systems. But the intensive irrigation and excessive use of water has led to the emergence of twin environmental problems of water logging and soil salinity
  • Soil moisture has been a limiting factor in successful growing of crops in this area. Spread of canal irrigation has led to increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping.
  • The traditional crops sown in the area, gram, Bajra and Jowar have been replaced by wheat, cotton, groundnut and rice. This is the result of intensive irrigation. This intensive irrigation, no doubt, initially has led to tremendous increase in agricultural and livestock productivity. This has also caused water logging and soil salinity, and thus, in the end, it hampers the sustainability of agriculture.

Promoting Sustainable Development

Promoting SD
  • The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
  • In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
  • The CAD programmes such as lining of watercourses, land development and levelling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
  • The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
  • The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
  • The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
  • The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centres, and market centres.

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