NCERT Class 12 Practical Geography Chapter 1: Data-Its Source & Compilation YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 12 Geography Practicals Chapter 1: Data Its Source and Compilation

Data & Datum

  • Weather forecast

  • Temperature

  • News

  • Disease

  • The data are defined as numbers that represent measurements from the real world. Datum is a single measurement.

  • Information is defined as either a meaningful answer to a query or a meaningful stimulus that can cascade into further queries

Need for Data

  • data related to the total population, density, number of migrants, occupation of people, their salaries, industries, means of transportation and communication is needed to study the growth of a city

  • Maps

  • Geographical analysis

Presentation of Data

  • River different height at different point

  • Average height

  • Child higher than average height – will not drown

  • It is important to collect and present the data

  • analytical tools and techniques have become more important these days to make the study more logical and derive precise conclusion

Types of DATA

  • Primary

    • Personal Observation – field survey

    • Interview

    • Questionnaire or Schedule

    • Others – soil or water quality kit

  • Secondary

    • Published

      • Government

      • Quasi Government

      • International

      • Private

      • Newspaper & Electronic media

    • Unpublished

      • Government – land record of patwari

      • Quasi Government – periodicals of municipal corporations

      • Others

      • Private – resident welfare association

  • Interview – simple language, clear, congenial atmosphere, not hurt self-respect, ask for additional information, grateful for their time

  • The only difference between the questionnaire and the schedule is that the respondent himself/ herself fills up the questionnaires, whereas, a properly trained enumerator himself fills up schedules by asking question addressed to the respondents. The main advantage of schedule over the questionnaire is that the information from both literate and illiterate can be collected

  • Published – Govt – Census of India published by the Office of the Registrar General of India, reports of the National Sample Survey, Weather Reports of Indian Meteorological Department and Statistical Abstracts published by state governments, and the periodical reports published by different Commissions

  • Quasi-govt or semi govt - Urban Development Authorities and Municipal Corporations of various cities and towns, Zila Parishads (District Councils),

  • International – UNESCO, UNDP, WHO, FAO

  • Private – yearbook, monograph,

Tabulation and Classification of Data

  • The data collected from primary or secondary sources initially appear as a big jumble of information with the least of comprehension. This is known as raw data – unusable

  • One of the simplest devices to summarise and present the data is the Statistical Table. It is a systematic arrangement of data in columns and rows.

  • Data are collected, tabulated and presented in a tabular form either in absolute terms, percentages or indices

  • Absolute - When data are presented in their original form as integers, they are called absolute data or raw data. (population)

  • % or ratio – literacy rate, growth rate

  • Index Number -- An index number is a statistical measure designed to show changes in variable or a group of related variables with respect to time, geographic location or other characteristics. It is to be noted that index numbers not only measure changes over a period of time but also compare economic conditions of different locations, industries, cities or countries. (current year/base year x 100)

Processing of Data

Grouping of Data

  • Four and Cross method or Tally (group – raw data – tally – number of individuals)

  • Age group number of children – frequency – cumulative frequency

  • Each simple frequency is associated with its group or class. The exclusive or inclusive methods are used for forming the groups or classes.

  • Inclusive Series – 0-9, 10-19

  • Exclusive Series – 0-10, 10-20

  • Frequency Polygon A graph of frequency distribution is known as the frequency polygon. It helps in comparing two or more than two frequency distributions

  • Ogive: When the frequencies are added they are called cumulative frequencies and are listed in a table called cumulative frequency table. The curve obtained by plotting cumulative frequencies is called an Ogive (pronounced as ojive). It is constructed either by the less than method or the more than method.