NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 1: Earth in Solar System Youtube Lecture Handout

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Galaxy

  • Gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter

  • Example, Milky Way (contains Solar System)

  • March 2016, Most distant galaxy – GN-z11

  • Hubble’s Classification

    • Elliptical (E)

    • Spiral (S): Andromeda & Sombrero (unbarred)

    • Lenticular

Celestial Bodies (Sun, Moon, Objects in Night Sky)

Image of Celestial Bodies (Sun, Moon, Objects in Night Sky)

Image of Celestial Bodies

Image of Celestial Bodies (Sun, Moon, Objects in Night Sky)

  • Celestial Bodies

  • Emit their own heat and Light – Star (Example, SUN)

  • Don’t emit their own light – Planets

  • Planets – Greek Word – Planetai i.e. Wanderer

  • NORTH STAR – POLE STAR – Indicates north Direction

Constellations (Group of Stars) – 88 Officially

Constellations (Group of Stars) Image-1

Constellations (Group of Stars) Image-1

Constellations (Group of Stars) Image-1

Constellations (Group of Stars) Image-2

Constellations (Group of Stars) Image-2

Constellations (Group of Stars) Image-2

Planets

Image shows Planets

Image Shows Planets

Image shows Planets

Dwarf Planets

  • Ceres - largest object in asteroid between Mars and Jupiter

  • Pluto – Small Size, Offbeat Orbit, Beyond Kuiper Belt, Now Planetoid

  • Eris - 2003 UB313 – 10th planet & largest dwarf discovered

  • Oort Cloud are composed of ices like ammonia, methane & water

  • Kuiper Belt – Ice belt beyond Neptune

  • Planet Nine in Kuiper Belt is 10 times the mass of Earth and 5,000 times the mass of Pluto.

  • Kuiper similar to asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter

Earth

Image shows Earth

Image Shows Earth

Image shows Earth

  • Shape – Geoid or Oblate Spheroid

  • 3rd nearest to sun

  • 5th largest planet

  • Age: 4.54 billion years old

  • Chemical composition of Crust – Silica, alumina, lime

  • Earth’s mass - Iron (32%), Oxygen (30%), Silicon (15%)

  • Earth’s Crust – 47% Oxygen

  • Rotation & Revolution

  • Earth's perihelion (closest) around 3 January & aphelion around 4 July.

Moon

  • Natural Satellite – Celestial body that moves around planet

  • Moon’s Diameter – 1/4th of earth (5th largest natural satellite)

  • Tides: Gravitational attraction between moon and earth

  • Ganymede – Largest moon in Solar System (Jupiter)

  • Titan – 2nd largest moon in solar system (Saturn)

  • Distance from earth: 384,400 km

  • Sidereal Month: w.r.t. to distant stars, 1 revolution relative to stars – 27.32 days

  • Synodic Month: w.r.t. to Sun, time taken by moon to reach the same visual phase - 29.53 days. Longer period is required to achieve similar alignment of Earth, the Sun, and the Moon.

  • Chandrayaan-I and II, TeamIndus (Unmanned spacecraft to moon)

  • Asteroids

  • Meteoroids

  • Comets

  • Pulsars