NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 7: Human Environment – Settlement, Transport & Communication Youtube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 7 Geography

Chapter 7: Human Environment – Settlement, Transport & Communication

Settlements

  • Where people build homes

  • Earlier on trees & caves

  • Then permanent house

  • Mainly near rivers, fertile areas, water

  • Slowly became larger

Types of Settlement

  • Temporary: Occupied for short period of time – Forests, Deserts, Mountains – Hunting, Gathering, Shifting Cultivation, Transhumance (Seasonal movement of people)

  • Permanent:

  • Rural: Compact (Closely Built) or Scattered (Extensive)

  • Scattered in Hills and Extensive forests

  • Slanting Roof: Rainy areas

  • Stilts: Accumulation of Water in Rains

  • Hot Areas: Thick mud wall with Thatched Roofs

  • Urban: Towns (Small), Cities (Large)

Transport

  • Means by which people and goods move

  • Earlier – Walked and Animals Carried Goods (Donkeys, Mules, Camels & Bullocks; S. America – Llamas; Tibet - Yaks)

  • Later – Invention of Wheel

  • Roadways

  • Railways

  • Airways

  • Waterways

Roadways

  • Most common for short distances

  • Metalled (Pucca)

  • Unmetalled (Kutcha)

  • Subways (Underpaths) – Built Underground

  • Flyovers – Above the Structure

  • Manali- Leh Highway (Amongst world’s highest roadways)

Railways

  • Over long distances

  • Cheaper method

  • Steam Engine – Industrial Revolution

  • Diesel & Electric Engines

  • Superfast trains

  • India rail network is largest in Asia

  • Trans-Siberian Railway – Longest in World: From St. Petersburg to Valdivostok

Waterways

  • Cheapest to carry goods for long distances

  • Inland waterway – Navigable Rivers (Ganga-Brahmaputra; Nile) and Lakes (Great Lakes)

  • Sea Routes: From one country to another

  • Major Ports: Mumbai, Los Angeles, Singapore, Sydney, Rotterdam

Airways

  • Fastest means of transport

  • Expensive – Higher cost of fuels

  • Affected by fog and storms

  • For inaccessible areas (helicopters)

  • In Natural Calamties – To rescue and provide food

Communication

  • Process of conveying message

  • Messages by Birds

  • Postal System

  • Print Media

  • Electronic Media – e-mails, internet

  • Mass Media: Communicate to large number of people – Newspaper, Radio & TV

  • Satellites: For faster communication- For oil exploration, forest, water, minerals, weather, disaster warning

  • Wireless communication: Cellular Phones