NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources

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NCERT Class 8 Geography

Chapter 2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources

Land

  • 90% population on 30% area

  • 70% land is uninhabited

  • 30% of total earth surface is land

  • Desert, Forest, Water bodies, plains, rivers

  • Landuse: Use of land for various purposes - agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads

  • Determined by physical (soil, climate, water) & human (population & technology) factors

  • Land – Private or Community owned (Common Property Resources)

  • Threats: Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification

Land Conservation

  • Afforestation

  • Land reclamation

  • Regulated use of chemical pesticide and fertilizers

  • Checks on overgrazing

Landslide

  • Mass movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope

  • Pangi village near Reckong Peo in Kinnaur district, HP – damage to Hindustan-Tibet road, National Highway – 22

  • Mitigation

    • Hazard Mapping

    • Retention Wall

    • Increase Vegetation

    • Surface Drainage Control Work

Soil

Thin layer of grainy substance covering earth

Soil Layers

Soil Layers

Soil Layers

image of soil description chart

Image of Soil Description Chart

image of soil description chart

Soil Conservation

  • Mulching: bare ground is covered with straw

  • Contour Barrier: Stone, grass barrier along contour

  • Rock Dam: Rocks piled to slow water flow

  • Terrace Farming

  • Intercropping

  • Contour Ploughing: Plough parallel to contours

  • Shelter Belt: Planted to check water movement

Water

  • Life began 3.5 billion years ago

  • 2/3rd is water – ocean water is saline

  • Fresh water -2.7% (of this 70% as ice and glaciers; Only 1% fit for human use)

  • Total Volume of water on earth remains constant – neither added nor deleted – Water Cycle Operates

Diagram of the water cycle showing evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

Image of Water Cycle

Diagram of the water cycle showing evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

Water Shortage

  • Variation in seasonal or annual precipitation

  • Scarcity is caused by overexploitation

  • Contamination of water sources

water shortage map showing regions where water scarcity occurs

Water Shortage World Map

water shortage map showing regions where water scarcity occurs

Main Contaminants

  • Discharge of untreated or partially treated sewage

  • Agricultural chemicals

  • Industrial effluents in water bodies

Water Conservation

  • Afforestation

  • Rainwater Harvesting

  • Lining Canals to minimize water loss by seepage

  • Sprinklers

  • Drip Irrigation

Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

  • Occurs in narrow zone of biosphere

  • Ecosystem – Life supporting system

  • Plants – Food, Shelter, Timber, Oxygen, Shelter belts, Protect Soil

  • Wildlife – Milk, Hide, Wool, Meat

  • Vulture – Scavenger

  • Heavy Rain – Abundant trees

  • Dry areas – Thorny Shrubs

  • Forest – Evergreen or deciduous

Extinction of Natural Resources

  • Deforestation

  • Soil erosion

  • Constructional activities

  • Forest fires

  • Tsunami

  • Landslides

  • Poaching of Animals

Conservation of Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

  • National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves

  • Awareness programs like social forestry and Vanamohatasava

  • Laws on trades & poaching of birds and animals

  • International convention CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

  • CITES: Prohibit trade & see if it does not threaten the survival - 5,000 animal species & 28,000 plant species. Examples include bears, dolphins, cacti, corals, orchids & aloes