NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources

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NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources

NCERT Class 8 Geography

Chapter 2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources


  • 90% population on 30% area

  • 70% land is uninhabited

  • 30% of total earth surface is land

  • Desert, Forest, Water bodies, plains, rivers

  • Landuse: Use of land for various purposes - agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads

  • Determined by physical (soil, climate, water) & human (population & technology) factors

  • Land – Private or Community owned (Common Property Resources)

  • Threats: Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification

Land Conservation

  • Afforestation

  • Land reclamation

  • Regulated use of chemical pesticide and fertilizers

  • Checks on overgrazing


  • Mass movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope

  • Pangi village near Reckong Peo in Kinnaur district, HP – damage to Hindustan-Tibet road, National Highway – 22

  • Mitigation

    • Hazard Mapping

    • Retention Wall

    • Increase Vegetation

    • Surface Drainage Control Work


  • Thin layer of grainy substance covering earth

Soil Layers

Soil Layers

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image of soil description chart

Image of Soil Description Chart

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Soil Conservation

  • Mulching: bare ground is covered with straw

  • Contour Barrier: Stone, grass barrier along contour

  • Rock Dam: Rocks piled to slow water flow

  • Terrace Farming

  • Intercropping

  • Contour Ploughing: Plough parallel to contours

  • Shelter Belt: Planted to check water movement


  • Life began 3.5 billion years ago

  • 2/3rd is water – ocean water is saline

  • Fresh water -2.7% (of this 70% as ice and glaciers; Only 1% fit for human use)

  • Total Volume of water on earth remains constant – neither added nor deleted – Water Cycle Operates

Diagram of the water cycle showing evaporation, condensation …

Image of Water Cycle

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Water Shortage

  • Variation in seasonal or annual precipitation

  • Scarcity is caused by overexploitation

  • Contamination of water sources

water shortage map showing regions where water scarcity occu …

Water Shortage World Map

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  • Main Contaminants

    • Discharge of untreated or partially treated sewage

    • Agricultural chemicals

    • Industrial effluents in water bodies

Water Conservation

  • Afforestation

  • Rainwater Harvesting

  • Lining Canals to minimize water loss by seepage

  • Sprinklers

  • Drip Irrigation

Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

  • Occurs in narrow zone of biosphere

  • Ecosystem – Life supporting system

  • Plants – Food, Shelter, Timber, Oxygen, Shelter belts, Protect Soil

  • Wildlife – Milk, Hide, Wool, Meat

  • Vulture – Scavenger

  • Heavy Rain – Abundant trees

  • Dry areas – Thorny Shrubs

  • Forest – Evergreen or deciduous

Extinction of Natural Resources

  • Deforestation

  • Soil erosion

  • Constructional activities

  • Forest fires

  • Tsunami

  • Landslides

  • Poaching of Animals

Conservation of Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

  • National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves

  • Awareness programs like social forestry and Vanamohatasava

  • Laws on trades & poaching of birds and animals

  • International convention CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

  • CITES: Prohibit trade & see if it does not threaten the survival - 5,000 animal species & 28,000 plant species. Examples include bears, dolphins, cacti, corals, orchids & aloes