NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Mineral and Power Resources Youtube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 8 Geography

Chapter 3: Mineral and Power Resources

Minerals

  • Naturally occurring substance with definite chemical composition

  • Physical Property: Color, Density or Hardness

  • Chemical Property: Solubility

Classification of Minerals

Image of Classification of Minerals

Image of Classification of Minerals

Image of Classification of Minerals

Extraction of Minerals

Image of Extraction of Minerals

Image of Extraction of Minerals

Image of Extraction of Minerals

Distribution of Minerals

  • Iron-ore in north Sweden

  • Copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada

  • Iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa

  • Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France

  • Manganese deposits of Georgia & Ukraine

  • Phosphate beds of Algeria

Minerals - Asia

  • ½ of world’s tin production

  • China & India – Iron ore

  • China, Malaysia, Indonesia – Tin

  • China - lead, antimony and tungsten

Image of Minerals-Asia

Image of Minerals-Asia

Image of Minerals-Asia

Minerals - Europe

  • World’s leading producer of iron

  • Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France – Iron ore

  • Eastern Europe and European Russia: copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel

  • Switzerland – No mineral deposits

Image of Minerals - Europe

Image of Minerals - Europe

Image of Minerals - Europe

Minerals – North America

  • Canadian region north of the Great Lakes - Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper

  • Appalachian region – Coal

  • Mountain ranges of the west - copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver

Image of Minerals - North America

Image of Minerals - North America

Image of Minerals - North America

Minerals – South America

  • Brazil – Largest producer of high grade iron ore

  • Chile & Peru - Copper

  • Brazil & Bolivia – Tin

  • Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia – Oil

  • Gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond

Image of Minerals - South America

Image of Minerals - South America

Image of Minerals - South America

Minerals – Africa

  • World’s Largest producer of gold, platinum & diamonds

  • South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire- Gold

  • Nigeria, Libya and Angola – Oil

  • Copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite

  • Green Diamond is the rarest diamond

Image of Minerals - Africa

Image of Minerals - Africa

Image of Minerals - Africa

Minerals – Australia

  • World’s Largest producer of bauxite

  • Kalgoorlie & Coolgardie - Gold

  • Gold, diamond, iron, copper, zinc, lead, manganese, tin & nickel

Image of Minerals - Australia

Image of Minerals - Australia

Image of Minerals - Australia

Minerals – Antarctica

  • Coal in Transantarctic Mountains

  • Iron near Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica

Image of Minerals - Antarctica

Image of Minerals - Antarctica

Image of Minerals - Antarctica

Minerals – India

  • Iron - Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, MP, Goa, Maharashtra & Karnataka

  • Bauxite - Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, MP, Gujarat, Maharashtra & Tamil Nadu

  • Mica - Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan

  • Copper - Rajasthan, MP, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh

  • Manganese - Maharashtra, MP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Karnataka and AP

  • Limestone - Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, MP, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu

  • Gold – Kolar in Karnataka

  • Salt - India is one of the world’s leading producers and exporters – Sambhar

Image of Minerals - India

Image of Minerals - India

Image of Minerals - India

Conventional Sources of Energy

  • In common use for long – Firewood & Fossil Fuel

  • Firewood – Cooking & heating – 50% in villages

  • Fossil Fuel – Coal, Petrol, Natural Gas

Table of Advantages and Disadvantages of Conventional Sources of Energy
Table of Advantages And Disadvantages of Conventional Sources of Energy

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Easy access

  • Provides Energy to a large number of people

  • Collection is time consuming

  • Polluting

  • Promoting greenhouse effect

  • Deforestation

Coal

  • Domestic Use

  • Electricity – Thermal Power

  • Called Buried Sunshine

  • China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa & France

  • India: Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Coal

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Extensively available

  • Efficient Conversion to electricity

  • Polluting Source

  • Bulky To Transport

Petroleum

  • Thick black liquid

  • Petra “Rock” + Oelum “Oil”

  • Between rock layers

  • Called Black Gold

  • Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Venezuela, USA, Algeria & Russia

  • India: Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai & deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Petroleum
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Petroleum

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Easier To transport (tankers)

  • Basis of Petro-Chemical Industry

  • Depletion of oxygen due to oil spillage and gas leakage

  • Pollutants released caused acid rain

  • Exploration of new fuel is not easy

Natural Gas

  • With petroleum deposits

  • Russia, Norway, UK , Netherlands

  • India: Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura & off shore in Mumbai

  • CNG: Eco-friendly & less pollution than petroleum

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Gas
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Natural Gas

Disadvantages

Advantages

  • Deplction of oxygen due to oil Spillage and gas leakage

  • Pollutants released caused acid rain

  • Exploration of new fuel is not easy

  • Easier To Transport (Pipelines)

  • Cleaner than oil and coal

  • Cheaper than oil

Hydel Power

  • Rainwater in dams fall from heights on turbine & it moves

  • Turns generator to produce electricity

  • 1/4th of total world’s electricity by hydel

  • Paraguay, Norway, Brazil & China

  • Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydel Power
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Hydel Power

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Non-Polluting

  • Promotes irrigation and fishing

  • Cheap

  • Displacement of local community

  • Inundates low

  • Expensive to setup

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

  • Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy which are renewable

  • Solar Energy: Solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Inexhaustible

  • Non Polluting

  • Expensive

  • Diffused source, so gets wasted

Wind Energy

  • Lies in coastal areas and mountain passes

  • Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Wind Energy

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Non-Polluting

  • Low cost production of electricity once setup

  • Safe and Clean

  • Noise Pollution

  • Wind mills costly to setup

  • Disturbs radio and T.V. reception

  • Harmful to birds

Geothermal Energy

  • Temperature in interior of earth rises

  • Hot springs – Cooking, Bathing

  • USA (largest geothermal power plants), Philippines, Iceland, New Zealand, Central America

  • India: Manikaran (HP), Puga (Ladakh)

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Wind Energy

Advantages

Disadvantages

Clean eco-friendly and always available

Located far away from cities and so costly to transport the electricity

Tidal Energy

  • Energy from tides

  • Build dams at sea openings

  • Russia, France, Gulf of Kachchh

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Tidal Energy
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Tidal Energy

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Non Polluting

  • Inexhaustible

  • Destroys wildlife habitat

  • Difficult to harness

Image of Low Tidal Energy Is Used To Produce Electricity

Image of Low Tidal Energy is Used to Produce Electricity

Image of Low Tidal Energy Is Used To Produce Electricity

Biogas Energy

  • Dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste

  • Energy saved is energy generated

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Tidal Energy
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Tidal Energy

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Low Cost

  • Easy to operate

  • Makes use of bio waste

Causes greenhouse effect

Image of Gas Tank

Image of Gas Tank

Image of Gas Tank

Nuclear Energy

  • Fission and Fusion reactions

  • Uranium & thorium

  • Greatest producer – USA & Europe

  • Uranium – Rajasthan & Jharkhand

  • Thorium – Monazite in Kerala

  • Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu, Tarapur in Maharashtra, Rana Pratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in UP, Kaiga in Karnataka

Image of Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
Image of Advantages And Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy

Advantages

Disadvantages

Emits large amount of energy

  • Generates radioactive waste

  • Expensive

Image of Nuclear Energy

Image of Nuclear Energy

Image of Nuclear Energy