NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Youtube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 8 Geography

Chapter 4: Agriculture

Economic Activities

  • Primary – Agriculture, Fishing, Gathering

  • Secondary – Manufacturing

  • Tertiary – Services – Trade, Transport, Banking, Advertisement

  • World – 50% in Agriculture.

  • India – 2/3rd in Agriculture.

Conditions for Agriculture

  • Ager “soil” + Culture “Cultivation”

  • Favorable Climate & Soil

  • Arable Land – Land on which crop grows

Image of Conditions For Agriculture

Image of Conditions for Agriculture

Image of Conditions For Agriculture

Image of Culture of Agriculture

Image of Culture of Agriculture

Image of Culture of Agriculture

Image of Processes of Inputs And Outputs

Image of Processes of Inputs and Outputs

Image of Processes of Inputs And Outputs

Types of Farming

  • Subsistence Farming – Low technology & household labor

    • Intensive – Small plot, simple technique, more labor – Rice, Maize, Wheat – Thick Populated Areas of SE Asia

    • Primitive – Shifting Cultivation & Nomadic Herding

  • Shifting Cultivation: Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of SE Asia and NE India – Slash & burn

  • Nomadic Herding: Sahara, Central Asia, Rajasthan, J & K – Sheep, Camel, Yak & Goat

Types of Farming

  • Commercial Farming – For sale in Market – Machines

  • Commercial Grain Farming – Wheat, Maize – USA & Europe

  • Mixed farming – Food, Fodder & Livestock - Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, SE Australia, New Zealand and South Africa

  • Plantation Agriculture - tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton – Large labor & capital - Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka

Major Crops

  • Rice: Tropical & Sub-tropical – High temperature, humidity & rain; China, India, Sri Lanka, Japan & Egypt

  • Wheat: Moderate temperature & rain, USA< Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia – in India in winters

  • Millets: Coarse, Sandy, Low rain & moderate temperature – Jowar, Bajra, Ragi; Nigeria, China, Niger

  • Maize: Moderate temp & lot of sunshine - N. America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, Mexico

  • Cotton: High Temp., Light Rain, 210 frost free days, black & alluvial soil; China, India, USA, Pak., Brazil, Egypt

  • Jute: Golden Fiber, High temp., heavy rain, alluvial soil, tropical; India & Bangladesh

  • Coffee: Warm & wet, loamy soil; Brazil, Columbia & India

  • Tea: Heavy rainfall throughout year, plantation, loamy soil, labor; Kenya, India, China & Sri Lanka

Agricultural Development

  • Increasing the cropped area

  • Number of crops grown

  • Improving irrigation facilities

  • Use of fertilizers and HYV seeds

  • Mechanization

  • Farm in India (1.5 hectares) vs USA (250 hectares)