NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture

NCERT Class 8 Geography

Chapter 4: Agriculture

Economic Activities

  • Primary – Agriculture, Fishing, Gathering

  • Secondary – Manufacturing

  • Tertiary – Services – Trade, Transport, Banking, Advertisement

  • World – 50% in Agriculture.

  • India – 2/3rd in Agriculture.

Conditions for Agriculture

  • Ager β€œsoil” + Culture β€œCultivation”

  • Favorable Climate & Soil

  • Arable Land – Land on which crop grows

Image of Conditions For Agriculture

Image of Conditions for Agriculture

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Image of Culture of Agriculture

Image of Culture of Agriculture

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Image of Processes of Inputs And Outputs

Image of Processes of Inputs and Outputs

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Types of Farming

  • Subsistence Farming – Low technology & household labor

    • Intensive – Small plot, simple technique, more labor – Rice, Maize, Wheat – Thick Populated Areas of SE Asia

    • Primitive – Shifting Cultivation & Nomadic Herding

      • Shifting Cultivation: Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of SE Asia and NE India – Slash & burn

      • Nomadic Herding: Sahara, Central Asia, Rajasthan, J & K – Sheep, Camel, Yak & Goat

Types of Farming

  • Commercial Farming – For sale in Market – Machines

    • Commercial Grain Farming – Wheat, Maize – USA & Europe

    • Mixed farming – Food, Fodder & Livestock - Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, SE Australia, New Zealand and South Africa

    • Plantation Agriculture - tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton – Large labor & capital - Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka

Major Crops

  • Rice: Tropical & Sub-tropical – High temperature, humidity & rain; China, India, Sri Lanka, Japan & Egypt

  • Wheat: Moderate temperature & rain, USA< Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia – in India in winters

  • Millets: Coarse, Sandy, Low rain & moderate temperature – Jowar, Bajra, Ragi; Nigeria, China, Niger

  • Maize: Moderate temp & lot of sunshine - N. America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, Mexico

  • Cotton: High Temp., Light Rain, 210 frost free days, black & alluvial soil; China, India, USA, Pak., Brazil, Egypt

  • Jute: Golden Fiber, High temp., heavy rain, alluvial soil, tropical; India & Bangladesh

  • Coffee: Warm & wet, loamy soil; Brazil, Columbia & India

  • Tea: Heavy rainfall throughout year, plantation, loamy soil, labor; Kenya, India, China & Sri Lanka

Agricultural Development

  • Increasing the cropped area

  • Number of crops grown

  • Improving irrigation facilities

  • Use of fertilizers and HYV seeds

  • Mechanization

  • Farm in India (1.5 hectares) vs USA (250 hectares)