NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 3: Drainage Youtube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 9 Geography

Chapter 3: Drainage

Terms

  • Drainage

  • Drainage Basin

  • Water Divide

  • Perennial – Water Year Round

  • River System – River + Tributaries

Image of Stream A And Stream B For Water Divide

Image of Stream a and Stream B for Water Divide

Image of Stream A And Stream B For Water Divide

Stages of River

  • Himalayan River – Intensive Erosion

  • Peninsular River – Short & Shallow

Image of Stages of River

Image of Stages of River

Image of Stages of River

Drainage Patterns

Image of Drainage Patterns

Image of Drainage Patterns

Image of Drainage Patterns

Indus River

  • Rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarovar

  • Enters India in Ladakh, J & K

  • Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza R. - Join in Kashmir region

  • Moves to Baluchistan & Gilgit & then Attock

  • Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab & Jhelum join Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan

  • Length – 2900 km

  • India – 1/3rd in J&K, HP & Punjab; rest in Pakistan

  • Indus Water Treaty -1960 – 20% water for India

Ganga River

  • From Gangotri Glacier in Bhagirathi R.

  • Joins Alaknanda R. at Devprayag

  • Reaches plains at Haridwar

  • Yamuna from Yamontri Glacier join at Allahabad (Left Bank)

  • Ghaghara, Gandak & Kosi R. from Nepal Himalaya

  • Chambal, Betwa & Son from Peninsular Region – Semiarid & Short Course of Flow

  • Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal (north most part of Ganga delta) – Separate in 2 parts:

    • Bhagirathi-Hooghly R. - flows southwards - deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal.

    • Mainstream - flows southwards into Bangladesh & joins Brahmaputra – (Later called Meghna)

  • Forms Sunderban Delta – Worldest largest and fastest growing delta – Sundari Tree

  • Ambala- Water divide b/w Indus & Ganga

  • Length: 2500 km

Brahmaputra River

  • Origin: Mansarovar Lake in Tibet

  • Reaches Namcha Barwa & takes U shaped turn in Arun. P. – Dihang

  • Joins Dibang, Lohit, Kenula R. – form Brahmaputra

  • Called Tsang Po in Tibet & Jamuna in Bangladesh

  • Forms braided channel in Assam & riverine islands

Narmada River

  • Rises in Amarkantak, MP

  • Westward in rift valley formed by faulting

  • Deep gorge – Marble Rocks in Jabalpur

  • Dhuadhar Falls – River plunges on steep rocks

  • Tributaries short & join at right angles

  • Flows through MP & Gujarat

Tapti River

  • Rises in Betul District in Satpura

  • In rift valley parallel to Narmada

  • Shorter than Narmada R.

  • Covers MP, Gujarat & Maharashtra

  • Other west flowing rivers - Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharathpuzha & Periyar

Godavari River

  • Largest Peninsular River.

  • Rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in Nasik, Maharashtra

  • Length: 1500 km

  • 50% in Maharashtra, then MP, Odisha & Andhra Pradesh

  • Tributaries: Purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga & Penganga

  • Known as Dakshin Ganga

Mahanadi River

  • Rises in Chhattisgarh

  • Length: 860 km

  • Drains Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa

Krishna River

  • Rises near Mahabaleshwar

  • Length: 1400 km

  • Tributaries: Tungabhadra, Koyana, Ghatprabha, Musi & Bhima

  • Maharasthra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh

Kaveri River

  • Rises in Brahmagri range of the Western Ghats

  • Reaches the Bay of Bengal in south of Cuddalore, in Tamil Nadu

  • Length: 760 km

  • Tributaries: Amravati, Bhavani, Hemavati and Kabini R.

  • Drains Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu

  • Other Eats Flowing Rivers: Damoder, Brahmani, Baitarni & Subarnekha

Lakes

  • Large Lakes = Sea – Dead Sea, Caspian Sea

  • Dal Lake – Shikaras – Kashmir

  • Spits and bars form lagoons - Chilika lake, Pulicat lake, Kolleru lake

  • Seasonal – Sambhar – Rajasthan – Salt Water Lake

  • Wular Lake – J & K – Fresh Water – Tectonic – Largest freshwater lake

  • Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani

  • Artifical: Guru Gobind Sagar (Bhakra Nangal Project)

River Pollution

  • Untreated Sewage & Industrial Effluents

  • Increasing Urbanization & Industrialization

  • Ganga Action Plan (GAP) phase-I: Started in 1985 & closed in 2000

  • Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-II: Merged with NRCP (National River Conservation Plan) – 152 towns on 27 interstate rivers in 16 states