NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Youtube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 9 Geography

Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

India – Flora & Fauna

  • Among 12 mega bio-diversities of world

  • 47,000 plant species (10th –world, 4th – Asia)

  • 15,000 flowering plants (6% of world)

  • 89,000 animal species

  • 1,200 bird species (13% of world)

  • 2,500 fishes (12% of world)

Image of Natural Vegetation

Image of Natural Vegetation

Image of Natural Vegetation

Factors Affecting Flora & Fauna

  • Relief

  • Land – rough terrain – grassland and woodland

  • Soil – sandy for cactus; wet deltaic for mangroves

  • Climate

  • Temperature – Tropical Subtropical Alpine (with ht.)

  • Photoperiod (Sunlight) – more sunlight, faster growth as in summers

  • Precipitation – rainfall by SW monsoon & retreating NE monsoon

Importance of Forests

  • Modify climate

  • Control soil erosion

  • Regulate stream flow

  • Support industries

  • Provide livelihood

  • Recreation

  • Control wind force

  • Cause rainfall

  • Shelter to wildlife

  • 2015 – 21.34% forest cover in India (cause - degradation)

Forested Area in India – 2013 (Forest Survey of India)

Image of Forested Area in India - 2013
Image of Forested Area In India - 2013

Top 3 States

% Forested Area

Mizoram

90.38%

Lakshadweep

84.56%

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

81.36%

Bottom 3 States

Punjab

3.52%

Haryana

3.59%

UP

5.96%

Types of Vegetation

  • Tropical Rainforest

  • Tropical Deciduous Forest

  • Tropical Thorn Forest

  • Montane Forest

  • Mangrove Forest

Image of Types of Vegetation

Image of Types of Vegetation

Image of Types of Vegetation

Tropical Rainforests

  • Heavy rainfall of 200 cm

  • Western Ghats, Lakshadweep, A & N Islands, Upper Assam & T. Nadu coast

  • Short dry season

  • Tree height – upto 60 meters

  • Warm & wet – year round

  • Multi-layered structure

  • Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, cinchona

  • Elephant, monkey, lemur, rhino

Tropical Deciduous

  • Rainfall of 70-200 cm

  • Shed leaves for 6-8 weeks in summers

  • Moist (100-200 cm): NE States, Himalaya, Jharkhand, W. Orissa, Chhattisgarh & eastern slop of Western Ghats – teak, bamboo, sal, shisham

  • Dry (70-100 cm): Rainier peninsula, Bihar & UP – teak, sal, peepal, neem

Tropical Thorn Forest

  • Rainfall less than 70 cm

  • NW India – Raj, Gujarat, MP, Chhattisgarh, UP, Haryana

  • Acacia, palm, cacti, euphorbia

  • Long roots

  • Succulent stems – conserve water

  • Leaves – thick and small - evaporation

  • Rat, mice rabbits, fox, wolf

Montane Forests

  • Wet temperate forest (1,000-2,000 m): evergreen broadleaf trees – oak & chestnut

  • Temperate forest conifers (1500-3000 m): Pine, deodar, spruce, cedar – south Himalayas & NE India

  • Alpine (above 3600 m): Silver fir, juniper, pines – at more ht. – alpine grasslands – Gujjar & Bakarwals

  • Tundra – above alpine – mosses and lichens

  • Kashmir stag, spotted deer, Tibetan antelope, snow leopard, red panda

Mangroves

  • Tidal forests

  • Silt and mud accumulated

  • Roots submerged in water – delta of Ganga, Mahanadi, and Krishna – Sundari trees for timber, coconut, agar, Royal Bengal tigers and snakes

Wildlife

  • Elephants – Assam, Karnataka, Kerala

  • One-horned Rhino – Assam & West Bengal

  • Wild Ass – Kutch – arid areas

  • Camels – Thar desert

  • Lions – Gir forest

  • Tigers – MP, Sunderbans, Himalayas

  • Yak, Wild ox, Tibetan antelope, bharal (blue sheep), kiang (Tibetan wild ass) – Ladakh & Himalayas – in pockets – red panda, ibex, snow leopard, bear

  • Only nation to have both lion & tigers

Importance

  • Milch animals – milk, draught, meat, egg

  • Fish - nutritive food

  • Insects – pollination

Red List IUCN – for India (2012)

  • 132 species – critically endangered (18 species of amphibians, 14 fishes, 10 mammals, 15 bird species)

  • 310 species - Endangered (69 fishes, 38 mammals and 32 amphibians)

  • 2 plant species - extinct in the wild, including Euphorbia mayuranthanii of Kerala.

  • Leaf frog species as extinct

  • Saker Falcon - Endangered

  • 15 species of Indian birds (Great Indian bustard, Siberian crane and sociable lapwing - Critically Endangered).

Conservation

  • Biosphere reserves in India – 18 (Core, Buffer & Transition zone) – Nilgiri (T.N., Karnataka & Kerala) – oldest, then came Nanda Devi & Nokrek; by area largest is Great Rann of Kutch estb, in 2008; newest – Seshachalam (AP, 2010) & Panna (MP, 2011)

  • National Parks

  • Wildlife sanctuaries

  • Project Tiger

  • Project Rhino

  • Project Great Indian Bustard