Competitive Exams: Europe

  • Latitudinal Extent 36° N 71° N

  • Longitudinal Extent 63° E 10° W (excluding Iceland) 63° E 24° W (including Iceland).

  • Largest countries Ukraine, France, Spain, Sweden, Germany, Finland, Norway, Poland, Italy.

  • Landlocked countries Luxemburg, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Andorra, Austria, Hungary, Czech Rep. Slovakia, Macedonia, Moldova, Belarus.

  • Smallest Countries (area wise) Vatican City (inside Rome, Italy), Monaco (Bordering France and Mediterranean Sea), San Marino (inside Italy), Liechtenstein (Between Switzerland and Austria), Malta (Island in Mediterranean), Andorra (trapped between Spain and France on the Pyrenees mountain range).

  • Monte Carlo, one of the biggest gambling centers in the world is the capital of Monaco.

  • Scandinavian countries (Norway, Sweden and Denmark)

  • United Kingdom comprises Wales, England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

  • The British Isle including Wales, England and Scotland forms the Great Britain.

  • Gibraltar is the territory of UK on the Spanish coast.

  • Ceuta and Melilla are Spanish territory on the African coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Islands in the Mediterranean Sea Sicily (Italy), Sardinia (Italy), Corsica (France), Balearic Islands (Majorca, Minorca and Ibiza) are part of Spanish territory, Crete (Greece), Malta (Malta), Cyprus (Cyprus)

  • The physiography of Europe can be divided into North Western Highlands, North Europian Plains, Central uplands and Alps and southern highlands.

  • North Western highlands comprises highlands of Norway, Sweden and northern Britain. Almost all of Norway lies in the highland region which is good for hydroelectricity but poor for agriculture. Norwegian coast is known for fiords. Northern Sweden comes under the coniferous forest belt.

  • North European plains are vast stretch of plains extending from France upto Russia. The plain is drained by numerous rivers flowing into North Sea (Rhine, Ems, Weser and Elbe), Baltic Sea (Oder, Vistuala) and Gulf of Boothnia.

  • The central uplands comprises Black Forest, Swabian Jura and Bohemian Forest in Bavaria (Germany), Moravian heights in Czech Republic, Sudeten on Czech Poland border, Carpathian mountains in Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia and Romania. The central Russian upland is an isolated upland lying near the western boundary of Russia with therest of Europe. The plain area towards the east of this upland is drained by Dnieper and Dniester rivers flowing into the Black Sea. Pripet river, a tributary of Dnieper has formed Pripet Marshes to the east of the central Russian upland. The lowland lying east of Central Russian Upland is drained by Don flowing into the Sea of Azov (marginal sea of Black sea) and the Volga river flowing into the Caspian sea.

  • River Danube flows through Bavaria (Germany), Austria, Hungarian plain, Yugoslavia and then along the Bulgaria Romania border into the Black Sea.

  • Southern highland include vast stretch of Alps including S. France, Switzerland, Northern Italy, Dinaric Alps in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Yugoslavia. Other ranges include Transylvanian Alps (Romania), Balkan Mts (Bulgaria). Pindus Mts (Greece). Appenines in Italy, Central Massif (France), Pyrenees (France, Spain and Andorra), Cantabrian Mts (Spain).

  • A series of parallel ranges or highlands Cantabrian mts. Old Castle, New Castle, Sierra Morena and Andalusia and Rivers like Ebro, Douro, Tagus, Guadiana, and Guadilquivir mark the topography of Spain. R. Ebro flows into the Mediterranean Sea where as the rest flow towards the Atlantic Sea.

  • Highest peak of Europe is Mt. Elburz (5633 m) in the Caucasus.

  • Mt. Blanc (4807 m) is the highest peak in Alps lying on the border of France, Italy and Switzerland.

  • Mt. Matterhorn (4478 m) lies on the Swiss Italian border.

  • Pico de Aneto is the highest peak of Pyrenees.

  • Corno Grande is the highest peak of Appenines.

  • Mt. Tatra is the highest peak of Carpathian mountains.

  • Crimea is the land portion of Ukraine protruding into the Black Sea.

  • Strait of Kerch joins the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov.

  • Strait of Bospurus joins the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara.

  • Dardanelles joins Marmara and the Agean Sea.

  • Strait of Otranto joins the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea.

  • Strit of Messina lies between Sicily and the Italian mainland.

  • Srait of Bonafacio lies between Corsica (France) and Sardinia (Italy).

  • Ionian peninsula Greece Iberian peninsula Spain and Portugal.

  • Pynees range forms boundary between France and Spain Oder river forms boundary between and Germany Shetland, Orkney and Hebrides Islands are in UK Faroe Island forms part of Denmark.

  • Kaliningrad is a Russian enclave on the Baltic Sea. Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland.