18th Century Independent States

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Detailed Map of Mysore Empier

Mysore Empire

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  • Mysore was ruled by Woyedars/ Wodeyars (1578-1617).

  • They surrendered to Adil shah of Bijapur.

Haider Ali

  • Between 1761-63, he conquered: Hoskote, Dodb-alapur, Shera, Bidnur and Sonda (defeated Sawai Imadi Sadasiv).

  • In 1764, Haider was threatened by the Peshwa Madhav Rao and was defeated near Dharwar on 3rd May.

  • In 1769, Madhav Rao again invaded and Haider Ali was defeated.

  • In 1771, a treaty was signed between Hyder Ali and Marathas. Accordingly: Hyder Ali was given the following places: Hoskote, Shera, Dodb-alapur, Kolar, Gurumkonda; Hyder Ali promised to pay 60 lakhs.

  • In 1774-76, he won back the lost territories. He annexed Bellary, Cuddapah, Gooty, and Kurnool.

  • In 1780, he annexed the territory of Coorg.

  • Nizm came closer to Haider Ali on the issue of Arkot.

  • The British supported Md. Ali for Arkot.

  • This led to a war between Haider Ali and British.

First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69)

  • The British force was led by Col. Smith. Haider Ali and Nizam fought against the British.

  • They were defeated at Changama near Trinomali in September, 1767.

  • Three battles were fought during the course of war: December, 1766- Battle of Vanianvadi, 8th October, 1768- Mulbagal, 22nd November, 1768- Ariyalur.

  • On 4th April, 1769, a treaty was signed and a mutual restitution of conquest and a defensive alliance took place between the Marathas and British.

  • In 1770, Maratha attacked Haider again but, the British did not help him in the battle of Chinkurali against Marathas.

  • Haider Ali was defeated at Motitalab on 5th March, 1771.

  • In April, 1772, a peace treaty was signed between Trimbak Rao and Haider Ali.

Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84)

  • In July, 1780, Haider attacked Karnataka.

  • On 1st July,1781, at Portonovo, Eyrecoote-the British general defeated Haider Ali.

  • He was again defeated in Pellilore on 27th September and then in Solingarh on 27th October.

  • In the meantime, Col. Braithwaite was taken as a prisoner by Tipu.

  • The French admiral, Suffrain reached Pulicat. The British were thus fighting at two fronts: against Mysore and against France.

  • These two development changed the battle in favour of Haider.

  • On 7th December 1782. Haider Ali died and Tipu joined the main army.

  • On 28th June 1783, there was a peace treaty signed between Britain and France in Europe and the war stopped in India as well.

  • On 20th May 1783, Tipu besieged Mangalore and retained it with him until 30th January 1784.

  • The governor of Madras-MacCartney made peace with Tipu on 11th March,1784 through treaty of Mangalore:

    • Armies were to remain in their place.

    • Prewar situation was reinforced.

    • All prisoners of war were released.

    • This treaty was known as 'Hollow Truce'.

Assessment of Tipu Sultan (1782-99)

  • Started the use of a new calendar.

  • Started the use of new coins, weights, and measures and established relations with Jacobins of France.

  • In 1796, created a naval army.

  • Sent diplomats to France, Turkey, Iran, Peru, and established commercial relations with China.

  • Sopped the conferment of Jagirs and fixed the revenue to 1/3rd.

  • Secular ruler and constructed many temples. Patronised Jagat Guru Shankaracharya.

  • In 1791, tried to protect the Sringeri temple from Marathas.

  • Marriage expenses, prohibited prostitution, and wine.

  • Reduced the authority of Poligars by seizing their properties.

  • Received ambassadors from Constantinople and France.

Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-92)

  • On 29th December 1789, Tipu captured Travancore infuriating the British.

  • Cornwallis made an alliance with Marathas in June 1790 and with the Nizam on 4th July 1790.

  • The war began in May 1790.

  • In March 1791, Cornwallis captured Bangalore and Tipu was compelled to sign the treaty of Sriranga-patnam on 19th March 1792.

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)

  • Tipu formed an alliance with France, Zaman Shah- the ruler of Qabul and with Kings of Arabia and Turkey.

  • With the help of Nizam and Marathas, Wellesley declared a war on Tipu in 1799.

  • On 4th May, 1799, British captured Srirangapatnam and Tipu Sultan died.

Administration of Tipu Sultan

  • Haider Ali never declared himself as king, but Tipu adopted the title in 1786.

  • Haider Ali issued his coins in Bidnur. Bidnur was described as Swarajya.

  • Tipu renamed Bidnur as Haider Nagar.

  • Unlike Haider, Tipu divided his administration into two: the military administration was supervised by Sudur and the civil administration by Asaf.

  • Haider Ali also reconstructed the temple of Rangaswami.

  • Tipu constructed roads at Malabar. He also repaired the Monastery of Jagatguru (which was earlier looted by the Pindaris).