Ancient Indian History: Terminology, Period and Extent, Major Cities

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Terminology

Sources

  • Archaeology: The science which enables us to dig the old mounds and to form an idea of the material life of the people.
  • Radio-carbon Method: The method according to which the dates of the excavated material remains are fixed
  • Numismatics: The study of coins
  • Epigraphy: The study of inscriptions
  • Paleography: The study of old writing used in inscriptions and other old records
  • Brahmin Script: Written from left to right considered to be the precursor of all the in dean scripts, except the Indus script
  • Kharosthi Script: Written from right to left used only in north – western India

Pre-His Oracle Periods

  • Paleolithic Age: Old Stone Age from 5,00 000 Bit is di- vided into three phases according to the nature of the stone tools used by the people,
  • Pleistocene and Holocene Periods: These are geographical periods Pleistocene Period was the lace Age which began in the times immemorial The Pala Eolithic Age in fact began in this period and came to an end along with this Holocene Period came in – immediately after Pleistocene Period and con- tines till today.
  • Mesolithic Age Also known as the Late Stone Age, it is the intermediate organism- tonal stage between the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages. The tools of this age are called macrolides (very small tools) .
  • Neolithic Age: The New Stone Age covers the period from 4000 BC. This age was marked by the use of polished stone tools
  • Chalcolithic Age: The Stone- Copper age covers the period from 1800 BC to 1000 or 800 BC In this age apart from stone copper (the first metal to be used in India) was also used

Period and Extent

Indus civilization belongs to the Bronze Age; it is older but surprisingly more developed than the Chalcolithic cultures in the subsume tenant broadly placed between 3000 BC and 1500 BC. The largest cultural zones of the pen- rood extending from Robar (Punjab) in the north to Bhagatrav (Gujarat) in the south (1100 km) and from Sutkagendor (Pakistan- Iran border) in the west to Alamgirpur (U. P) In the east (1600 km.) ; according to the latest excavations the northernmost site is Mandan (Jammu & Kashmir) and the southernmost, Imamabad (Maharashtra) The latest Indus site to be discovered is Balathal near Udaipur (1994 - 95) which is probably the oldest known village settlement in India (but the oldest Icnownvillage or agricultural settlement in the Indian subcontinent is Mergers in the Indian subcontinent is Merger Baluchistan)

Major Cities

Major Cities

Location

  • Mohenjo-Daro in Sind
  • Harappa in Pakistani Punjab
  • Chanhudaro in Sind Kalimantan in northern Rajasthan Lethal in Gujarat Pinwale in Haryana rkotada in Gujarat Dholavira in Gujarat

Common Features

  • Systematics town planning on the lines of the grid system i.e.. streets and lanes cutting oases one another almost at right and thus dividing the city into several rectangular blocks.
  • Large-scale use of standardized burnt bricks and total absence of stone build ins
  • Remarkable underground drainage system connecting all houses to the strict drains.
  • The presence of an impressive fortified citadel on the west era side which housed public buildings. Below the citadel on the eastern side is the lower town con- siting of the houses of the commoners Houses generally had side-entrances and there were no windows even facing the main streets

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