Dynasty in India Sayyid Dynasty & Lodhi Dynasty

Sayyid Dynasty (1414 -1451)

Khizr Khan

  • He was appointed as viceroy of Delhi by Timur Lang

  • According to Yahya Sarhindi, the author of Tarikh-i-Mubarakshahi, Khizr Khan was a descent from prophet of Islam

  • He assumed the title 'Raiyat-i-Ala'

Mubarak Shah

  • Adopted the title 'Shah'

  • Read the khutba by his name

  • Received help from Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir

  • Defeated Khokhar tribe

  • Patronised Yahya Sirhindi

Muhammad Shah

  • In his reign Bahlol Lodhi was given the title of Khan-i-Khanan.

Allaudin Alain Shah

  • During his reign, his Prime Minister Hamid Khan invited Bahlol Lodhi to capture the throne.

Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1562)

Map showing extent of Lodhi Dynaty

Map of Lodhi Dynasty

Map showing extent of Lodhi Dynaty

Bahlol Lodhi

  • Bahlol Lodhi established the first Afghan dynasty in India.

  • Called himself as 'Masad-i-Ali'.

  • Annexed the Sharqi Empire.

  • Introduced copper coin called 'Bahloli'.

  • Died near Jalali.

Sikander Lodhi

  • Mother was a Hindu.

  • Introduced a 'Gaz-i-Sikandari' (measurement unit)

  • Shifted his capital to Agra in 1504 A.D.

  • Wrote poems under the name of 'Gulrukh'.

Ibrahim Lodhi

  • Fought a battle with Rana Sanga at Khatauli. Rana defeated the Lodhi

  • During his reign Babur was invited by the Governor of Eiiniab, Daulat Khan Lodhi and Governor of Bihar, Daria Khan Lohani.

  • Babur defeated Ibrahim in the first battle of Panipat (1526).

Agriculture and Finance Terms During Sultanate

  • Crown land: Khahsa

  • Grants made for the religious purposes: Waqf

  • Grant made to non-religious institutions: Milk

  • Grant given as a reward: Inam

  • Land tax from Hindu landlords: Kharaj

  • Land granted to military officers: Iqta

  • Holders of Iqta: Muqta

  • House tax: Ghari

  • Grazing tax: Charai

  • Alms tax on Muslims: Zakat

  • War booty: Khums

  • Village headman: Khuts/ Muqaddams.

  • Land revenue fixed on the basis of standing crops: Khet Batai

  • Land revenue fixed without separating the grain from the chaff: Lank Batai

  • After separating the grain from the chaff: Ras Batai

  • Land revenue on the basis of measurement of land: Masahat

  • Land revenue on the basis of estimate: Nasq

  • Taxes on grains: Galla-i-Chungi

  • Tax on vegetables: Khizrawat

Administration Terminology

  • Majlis-i-Khalwat: council of friends and trusted officers who advised the sultan

  • Wazir: head of Diwan-i-Wizarat (dealt with income and expenditure)

  • Mustaufi-Mummalik: Auditor General

  • Mushrif-i-Mummalik: Accountant

  • Ariz-i-Mummalik: Head of the military department, Diwan-i-Arz

  • Sadr-us-Sudur: Head of the public charities and ecclesiastical department, Diwan-i-Risalat.

  • Qazi-ul-Quzzat: Head of the judicial department.

  • AmirMunshi: Head of department for correspondence, Diwan-i-Insha

  • Barid-i-Mummalik: Head of the information and intelligence department.

  • Vakil-i-Dar: Looked after the royal household.

  • Barbek: Looked after the royal court and was involved in assigning nobles a place in the court according to their positions and ranks.

  • Amir-i-Hajib: Presented all the visitors before the sovereign according to court etiquette.

  • Sar-i-Jandar: Chief of royal bodyguards

  • Amir-i-Bahr: Looked after boats

  • Waqia-Navis: News reporter.

  • Barid: Spy

  • Zawabit: State laws

  • Fawazil: Surplus

  • Amir-i-Khuzak: Charged with protecting the royal symbols.

Revenue Administration:

  • There were four major taxation:

  1. Zakat- was a religions tax imposed on the Muslims and ' was 2.5 per cent;

  2. Khums - was a state share of the booty acquired by the soldier and the soldiers were required to surrender 1/5 th. During A.K.'s period it was increased to 4/5 th i.e. 80 per cent;

  3. Kharaj - was the land tax varied from 1/10* to 1/2. It was l/10th during Ghyasuddin Tughlak and 1/ 2 during A.K.;

  4. Jaziya - was a religious tax on the Hindus because they were called_Zimmis i.e. protected people so the Jaziya was protection tax. It was 5 per cent and FST imposed it on Brahmins also. The other taxes were:

    1. Abawbs - Gharai, Charai - imposed by A.K.

    2. Haqis Shirub - water tax;

    3. Usari - on muslims

      1. 1/10th on rain cultivated area

      2. 1/20th on artificial irrigational area;

    4. Khudmati – tribute for subjugated Indian chiefs;