Delhi Sultanate (1206 − 1526)

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Detailed Map of Delhi Sultanate

Slave (Mamhik) Dynasty Qutubuddin Aibak

  • He did not issue coins and khutba was not read in his name.
  • He laid the foundation of Mehrauli
  • He started the construction of Qutub Minar after the name of Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
  • He was called as ‘Lakh Bakhsh’ .
  • He built Quwwat ul Islam Mosque and Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra.
  • He died while playing Chaughan (Polo) .


  • He was the first Ilbari Turk.
  • His tribe is also known as Shamsi tribe.
  • He was the first soveriegn ruler of Delhi Sultanate.
  • Actually, Qutubuddin Aibak was succeeded by Aram Shah but Iltutmish removed him.
  • Chengiz Khan was about to attack Delhi during his reign.
  • Bahauddin Zakaria of Suhrawardi invited him to attack Multan.
  • Third Battle of Tarain was fought between Iltutmish and Yalduz in 1215 A. D. Iltutmish defeated Yalduz.
  • He created “Turkan I Chalgani” ; it was popularly known as Chalisa.
  • He introduced purely Arabic currency of gold and silver.
  • He was the first to get investiture from Calipha.
  • He completed the Qutub Minar.
  • He died in 1236 A. D.
  • He was succeeded by Rukniudin Feroz.

Razia Sultan

  • She was the first and only lady sultan of Delhi.
  • She appointed Abyssinian slave Jallaluddin Yakut to the post of Amir -i - Akhur.
  • She married Altunia, governor of Bhatinda.
  • She was captured and killed near Kaithal.
  • She was succeeded by Behram Shah.

Allaudin Masuddin Nasiruddin Mahmud

  • He appointed Balban as Malik Naib.
  • He was known as ‘Darvesh Sultan’ .

Ghiyasuddin Balban

  • His original name was Ulugh Khan.
  • He called himself as Naib-i- Khudai, i.e. Deputy of God.
  • He was a member of Chalisa.
  • He demolished the Mewatis (the bandits) .
  • He gave the theory of kingship by introducing the concept of Zil-i-Ilahi, i.e.. shadow of God on earth.
  • He liquidated the Chalisa group.
  • He started the tradition of Sijda (prostration) and Paibos (kissing of feet) .
  • He introduced Persian festival of Nauroz.
  • He separated Diwan-i-Wizarat (Ministry of Finance) and created a new ministry called Diwan-i-Arz. During his reign the famous governor of Bengal Tughril Khan revolted. Balban moved in person and brutally suppressed the revolt.
  • He followed the policy of Blood and Iron.
  • Amir Khusro and Amir Hasan both started their literary journey from the court of Balban.
  • Balban was to nominate Kai Khusro as his successor but Kaikubad usurped the throne.

Khaljis Jallaluddin Khalji

Map of Khaljis Jallaluddin Khalji Empire
  • Kaikubad appointed him as Sar-i-Jandar (chief of royal bodyguards) .
  • He was the first to believe that the kingship should be based on the willing support of the governed.
  • He established Diwan-i-Waquf.
  • He was the first sultan to intervene in Deccan under the military leadership of Allaudin Khalji.
  • He faced the revolts of Sidi Maula and Malik Chhaju.
  • In 1296 he was poisoned by Allaudin Khalji at Kara.

Allaudin Khalji

  • He faced lot of Mongol attacks:
    • 1299 - Saladi
    • 1299 - Qutlugh Khwaja Targi
    • 1303 - Targi
    • 1303 - Qabak
  • Alap Khan, Zafar khan, Nusrat Khan and Ulugh Khan were the Generals of Allaudin Khalji.
  • He led the following expeditions:
Expiditions of Allaudin Khalji
1308- Sivana (Marwar)
  • Ramchandra Dev of Deogiri was given the title of ‘Rai Rayan’ by him.
  • He established Diwan-i-Riyasat (to regulate economic functions) and Diwan-i-Mustakharaj (for collection of taxes) .
  • He launched Postal Service.
  • He started a new measuring unit, Biswa.
  • He imposed ‘Charai’ and ‘Ghari’ .
  • He started the practice of Dagh (for horses) and Chehra (for soldiers) .
  • He introduced market reforms.
  • He went into the question why so many rebels arise.
  • For this, he banned social gatherings and ceremonies, banned liquor, and prohibited matrimonial alliances. He also reorganised the intelligence system and took back all the lands from the previous nobles and no more fresh land grants were made.
  • He inscribed on his coins “Sikander -i -Sami” . According to Barani he also wanted to form a new religion.
  • He delineated ‘shariat’ from politics.
  • He abolished Tqta ′ and started paying in cash.
  • He raised the land revenue to the 50 per cent of the gross produce.
  • He reversed the distribution of Khums (war booty) . Earlier state had a share of l/ 5th , he made it 4/ 5th for the state and rest for the soldiers.
  • Malik Kafur who was brought by Sultan in his Gujarat expedition, led three expeditions to Deccan under the Sultan and was made the Malik Naib.

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