Indus Valley Civilization-Ropar, Alamgirpur and Al Murad

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  • On the banks of Sutlej River in Punjab.
  • Discovered by Y. D. Sharma in 1953.
  • Mature and late Harappa site.
  • New type of pottery and ornaments has been found.
  • It has yielded five-fold sequence of cultures viz. Harappan, PGW, NBP, Kushana Gupta period and medieval period.
  • It yielded typical Harappan pottery, cert blades, beads, faience ornaments, bronze Celts, terracotta cakes and one inscribed steatite seal with typical Indus pictographs.
  • On the northwest corner of the site several burials, interned in oval pits were excavated and one example of rectangular mud brick chamber was noticed. The grave goods included 2 to 26 pots in various models. There were also some graves devoid of any goods. These might have been the graves of the middle or lower class people. In the graves were also found faience and shell bangles, agate beads, copper reads etc.
  • The evidence of burying the dog below the human burial, not found in any other Harappan site.
  • A copper axe found. Houses were made of stones and mud.


  • In Meerut district on the banks of Hindan river.
  • Discovered by Punjab University in 1958.
  • It belongs to the last phase of Harappa.
  • Perforated jar, cylinder vase pottery with geological motifs and the impression of textiles.
  • Characterized by Painted Grey Ware.

Al Murad

  • At Dadu in Sindh.
  • A massive fort has been found and the place is found well inside the fort.
  • Black and Red ware pottery found.

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