Kingdoms in India Badami, Pandyas of Madurai and Pallavas of Kanchi

Pandyas of Madurai

detailed map of Pandyas of Madurai empire

Pandyas of Madurai Empire

detailed map of Pandyas of Madurai empire

Maravarman Rajasimha I 730-765

  • Successor of Koccadaiyan

  • Conquered Kongu Desa;

  • Defeated Chalukya Kiriti Varman II in the Battle of

  • Venbai;

Nedunjdaivan:-765 -815 A.D.

  • Mastery over Tanjore; Trichurapalli, Salem, Coimbatore.

  • Srimara Srivallabh: -

  • Repulsed attacks of the confederacy of Gangas, Pallavas, Chola; but routed by Pallava Nandivaman III

Varagunavarman II 862 -880

  • decisively defeated by Pallava Aparajita

Naravarman Rajasimha II 905 -920

  • Unto AD 1166 - Civil war started by Parakama Pandya and Kulashekhra, Kulottu-ngachola III ultimately succeeded in placing Vikrama Pandya

Maravarman Sundra Pandva 1216 -1238

  • Regarded as the second founder of Pandyan Empire

  • Defeated Rajaraja III

Chaulkayas of Badami or the Early western Chalu-kvas :

  • Related to Karneresse Family, later adopted Kshatriya status.

  • It has been said that the Chalukyas were related to Chalukya, which means family.

  • Related to Haritiputra, and belonged to Manvya Clan.

  • Their royal emblem was Varaha, the earliest reference is found of Jayasimha, whose son was Ranaraga.

  • Jayasimha adopted titles like Vallabha, Vallabendra.

  • According to Aihole Inscription, which is cradle of Indian Civilization, informs that Pulkasin I (535-566 A.D), was the first independent king of this dynasty. He was son of Ranraga. Pulakasin means "Hair of the lion",'his titles are: Saty-asraya, Rana Vikrama, Sri Prithvi Vallabha, Sri-Vallabha.

  • He performed Asvamedha sacrifice and Hiranyagarbha Prasuta, alongwith Agni-stoma, Agnischayana, Vajpeya, Bahuswarana and Paundrika sacrifices.

  • His wife's name was Durlabha Devi, his son was Kirtivarman and he was C-in-C.

Kirtivarman I (566-67-597)

  • He founded Vatapi, the grants made by Pulkesin I and Kirtivarman led to the foundation of Muktesvara Temple, which is modern Mahakuta.

  • He assumed titles: Satasraya, Purarug Prakra

  • Youngest brother was Magalesha, Magalesha composed Mahakuta inscription.

  • Kirtivarman I married to Sri Vallabha Senananda's (king of Sendraka) sister.

  • He defeated the following kings:

    1. Vanga,

    2. Anga,

    3. Kalinga,

    4. Vatura,

    5. Magadha,

    6. Madraka,

    7. Kerala,

    8. Ganga,

    9. Mushaka,

    10. Pandya,

    11. Dhimila,

    12. Chola,

    13. Alukia,

    14. Vaijayanti, therefore, the whole area is called "Chakravarti Kshetra".

  • He also defeated Nala, the Mauryas of Konkon and Kadamba

Mangalesa: (598-610)

  • Titles: Mangalaraja, Virudasa, Rana Vikrant, Uru Rana Vikranta, Paramab-hagvata (Vaishnava).

  • Defeated Kalachuri.

  • War of succession between Pulkesin II and Mangalesha, and according to Aihole Inscription, Mangalesha was killed. The son of Mangalesha has not been mentioned anywhere, but it seems his name was Satyasara Indravarman. (According to Goa Grants).

Pulakesin II (610-642)

  • Titles: Virudasa Satyasara, Sri Prithviballbha, Parames-vara, Maharajabhattaka, Parambhagvata (Lohner Grant)

  • Ravikirti's Aihole Inscription gives information about his expeditions.

  • He was a Jaina, in 634-635; he founded Jinendra, a holy place

  • He defeated Kadambas of ganavasi; Ganga ruler piurvinita Konkani and marked his daughter, Alupas, harsha of Kanauj, this is informed by Aihole inscription a/id H. Tsang, most probably 0n 2nd Aug, 612.

  • It has also been said that Lata, Malavas, Gujar and pulkesin.

  • He conquered Pistapura and Kunala and given it to kunja-Vishnuvardhan, who founded Eastern Chalukyas, which lasted upto 1070.

  • The Pallava king was defeated by him and he capered Kanchi in the Battle of pallulura, and therefore, finished his Digavijaya expedition and returned to Vatapi.

  • According to Lohner Grant, he was Lord of Eastern and Western water.

  • H.Tsang visited his darbar.

  • According to Tabari, a historian, the Persian king khusro received embassy of pulkasin II.

  • Finally, Narasimhavarman I defeated and probably lulled him.

Vikramaditya I (655-681)

  • Son of Pulkesin, his bother was Adityavarman.

  • Adopted titles like: yirusatyasraya, Ranarasika, Anavarita, Rajamalla, Sivabhakta-which indicates that he was Siva.

  • Medhacharya was his guru.

  • According to Hyderabad Grant, he defeated Narasimhavarman I, his son Mahendravarman II, and grandson pprameshvara-varman I and captured Kanchi and also defeated Kalabhras and his area is called Chakravarti Kshetra.

  • He is also called Tarairaja, Pallavapati, and also Kanchipati.

  • He destroyed Vatapi.

Vinayaditya (681-696)

  • Son of Vikramaditya, called Palidvajja.

  • Defeated: Pallava, Kala-bras, Kerala, Hahiyas (Kalacuris), Malavas, Chola, Alupa, Ganga.

  • Tribute-paying countries: Kavera, Persia, Ceylon

Vijayaditya: 696-733

  • Titles: Virudasa Satya-sraya, Samastavuh-anasraya, batarraka.

  • He built a Shiva temple, called Vijayneshwar, also called Samgeshwar at Pattaddakal near Aihole.

  • During his time Jainism flourished, younger sister was Kunkun Devi, and also built Anishejjayaawasaddi Laksmeshwar.

Vikramaditya II (733-745)

  • Younger brother was Bhima, who became ancestor of Later Chalukyas

  • Queen's name was Lokamahadevi, Hahiya dynasty. She built Lokeshwara temple also known as Virupaksha Temple.

  • GundaAnitivaticaryawas the architect of the temple, king conferred him the title: Mumerjeri puuta,

  • He is also known as Tribhvanacharya.

  • His second queen was Trilokamahadevi, she also built a Shiva temple, named Trilokyeshwar Temple.

  • Fought against King Nanditovarman (Nandivaran II).

  • He entered in Kanchi, but did not destroy the temple; instead he donated gold to the Rajsimheshwar temple.

  • Thereafter defeated Chola, Kerala, and Kalabhras.

  • His younger brother was Anjanijanasraya Pulkesin, who repulsed the attack of Tajiks/Arabs. Vikramaditya conferred him the title: Anivratanivartayetri and Dakshinapathasvadharna.

Kirtivarman II (744-757)

  • Titles: Virudasa Satya-sraya and Nripasimha

  • He was overthrown by Dantidurga/ Dantivarman II

  • Ellora was the headquarter

Pallavas of Kanchi:

  • Brahmans of Bhardwaj clan; some other source say that they belonged to Naga Family or tribal group.

  • The first ruler was Simhavarman (550-575), then Shiva Skandavarman and then Skandvarman (Srivijaya Skandavarman or Vishnugopta).

  • Prakrit sources inform that Shivaskandavarman was Governor of Andhra path. His father was Bappa or Simhavarman

Simhavishnu (575-600)

  • Called Avanisimha (Lion of the earth)

  • During his reign the famous Sanskrit poet Bharavi lived, who wrote Kiratar-juniya

  • The reliefs of himself and his two queens are found at Mahabalipuram.

Mahendravarman I (600-630)

  • Called Vichhitracitta (myraid minded); Chett-hakari (temple-builder); Mattavilsa (addicted to enjoyment); Chitrakarappauli (tiger among painters); also called Gunabhadra

  • Wrote Matavilasa Praha-sana.

  • He gave up Jainism and took Saivism under the influence of Appar; therefore Appar was contemporary to him.

  • The Sanskrit inscription at Kudimiyamalai (Padukkottai State) relating to music is ascribed to his initiative, and he is regarded as an expert musician.

Narasimhavarman I (630-668)

  • Son of Mahendravarman I, called Mahamalla which means a great warrior or wrestler.

  • He defeated Pulakesin II and captured Vatapi and assumed title Vatapikonda.

  • Siruttonda Nayannar was his General.

  • He sent an expedition to Ceylon in order to reinstateavarma.

  • Narasimhavarman erected some monolithic shrines called Rathas at Mallai or Mahabalipuram (Seven Pagodas, near Madras), though he cannot be regarded as the founder of the city.

  • H.Tsang visited his Darbar

  • According to Chinese sources, he sent Dharmapala to study in Nalanda University

Mahendravarman II (668-670)

  • Chalukyan Vikramaditya was his greatest rival.

Parameshvara-varman I (670-695)

  • Chalukyan Vikramaditya was his greatest rival.

  • He was a Saiva.

  • He built the temple at Kanchi.

Narasimhavarman II (695-722)

  • Adopted title Rajasimha (Lion of the Kings); also called Agampriya (lover of literature); also known as Sankarabhakta.

  • Sent his embassy to China.

  • Probably, Dandin, the author of Dasakumacarita lived during his reign.

  • He built Kailashnath Temple and Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Parameshvaravarman (722-730)

  • He faced the wrath of Vikramaditya