Kingdoms in India-Gauda Kingdom, Pala Empire, Chandras, Devas, Eastern Gangas, Kalachuris of Tripuri, Gujara-Pratiharas and Candellas of Jejakabhukt

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Map Showing Kingdoms of India

Gauda Kingdome (590 – 626 AD)

Tufan or Tibetan Empire and Neighbouring Regions

Gauda Kingdom was a Kingdom located in Bengal in ancient and medieval times.

King Shashanka has separate political entity in a unified Bengal called Gauda.

Kings:

  1. Shashanka (590 - 625)
  2. Manava (625 - 626)

(1) Shashanka (590 - 625)

  • He ruled in 7th century AD, from 590 AD and 625 AD.
  • He is the contemporary of Harsha and of Bhaskar Varman of Kamarupa.
  • His capital was at Karnasuvarna, 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi) south-west of Baharampur, headquarters of Murshidabad district.
  • The development of the Bengali calendar is often attributed to Shashanka because the starting date falls within his reign.

(2) Manava (625 - 626)

  • Manava was the son and the king of Gauda, Shashanka.
  • He has succeeded hi father after his death.
  • He was the last recorded ruler of the dynasty and was likely deposed by Harshavardhana or Bhaskaravarman.
  • He ruled as king for 8 months.
  • As per Sharadindu Bandhyopadhyay՚s Novel ‘Gour Mallar’ ManabDeb (King Manava) had his son.
  • His name was ‘Bajra Dev’ (Bajra) and he was the king of Gauda for only 1 day.

Pala Empire of Bengal

  • During the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal the Pala Empire was an imperial power.
  • Named after ruling dynasty rulers bore names ending with the suffix of Pala, which meant “protector” in the ancient language of Prakrit.
  • They were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism.
  • The empire was founded when Gopala was elected as emperor of Gauda in 750.
Map of Pala Empire and Neighbouring Regions

Gopala (Ruled C. 750s – 770s CE)

  • Gopala was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal region of the Indian Subcontinent.
  • The last morpheme of his name Pala means “protector” and was used as an ending for the names of all the Pala monarchs.
  • Pala does not suggest or indicate any ethnic or caste considerations of the Pala dynasty.
  • He came to power around 750 CE in Gaur after being elected by a group of regional chieftains.
  • According to Tibetan Taranath: Gopala built the celebrated monastery at Odantapuri and reigned for 45 years

Dharmapala: 770 - 810 a. D

  • Dharmapala (ruled 8th century) was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal region in the Indian Subcontinent.
  • He was the son Gopala and succeeds him.
  • He greatly expanded the boundaries of the empire, and made the Palas a dominant power in the northern and eastern India.
  • He was called as Vangapati or Gaudesvara
  • Mudagiri (Monghyr) was the capital of the Palas.
  • He had been regarded as the Uttarapathaswami
  • Bhoja, Matsya, Madra, Kuru, Yadu, Yavana, Avanti, Gandhara and Kira paid obeisance to Dharmapala.
  • Defeated Indrayudh and installed Chakrayudh.
  • Defeated by Pratihara Nagabhatta II and seized Kannauj.
  • Founded Vikramashila University and revived Nalanda University.

Chandras

  • Inhabitants: Rohitagiri (Bihar feudatories of Palas) Capital: Vikrampura

Srichandra: 925 - 975 a. D

  • Son of Trailokyachavdra. Declared independence and brought all the chiefs of Vanga and captured Chand-radvipa.
  • Kalyanachandra, Ladaha-chandra and Govindchandra was defeated by Rajendra Chola in 1025.
  • Overthrown by Yadavas, also known as Varmanas.

Varmanas

  • Inhabitants: Yadava race were originally the ruler of Simhapur (Singur Hooghly district) Senas
  • Inhabitant: Daksinapth; Founder Samantasena himself, Kshatriya of Karnata and born in a family of Brahman Kshatriya at a place called Radha in West Bengal

Vijavasena: 1093

  • Deopara inscriptions composed by the poet Dhoyi defeated Nepal, Vira, Gauda, Kamrupa. Gauda wrested from last Pala King Madanapala.
  • Capitals: Vikramapura, East Bengal, Vijayapura, West Bengal;

Ballalasena: 1165 - 1185

  • Laghubharata and Ballalacarita inform that he included Mithila.
  • Wrote Danasagara on Smriti; and Adbhutasgara on astronomy.
  • Introduced Kulinism in Bengal.

Laksmanasena: 1187

  • Defeated Jayachandra of Gahadavala
  • Defeated King of Kasi and conquered Prayagjotisa
  • Bakhtiyar Khalji made attack on 1194 and wrested Nadia (Lakshmanavati or Lakhnauti) and forced him to Vikramapura
  • Devout of Vaishnavism
  • Founded Lakhnauti
  • Patronized Gita Govinda՚s author, Jayadeva,
  • Dhoyi who wrote Pavanadutam,
  • Halayudha, the linguist

Devas

  • Inhabitant: reigned in Samatata lower Bengal.
  • Founder: Damodara: supremacy over Samatata
  • Dasrathadeva: conquered Vanga
  • Transferred his capital to Vikrampura

Eastern Gangas

  • Inhabitants: Kolahala (Kolar)
  • Therefore branch of Gangas of Mysore
  • Anantavarman Choda Ganga: 1077 - 1147
  • Father Rajaraja Ganga by his Chola wife: Rajasundri daughter of Rajendra Chola
  • Invaded by Lakshmansena
  • Continued struggle with Turks.

Kalachuris of Tripuri

  • The Kalachuri Empire was the name used by two kingdoms who had a succession of dynasties from the 10th - 12th centuries, one ruling over areas in Central India and were called Chedi or Haihaya and the other the southern Kalachuri who ruled over parts of Karnataka

Gujara-Pratiharas

Political Map of the Kannauj Triangle
  • Inhabitants: 36 clans, first local officials to carve out a series of privilege and Agni-Kula origin, traces antecedents from Lakshmana
  • The Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an Indian imperial power that ruled much of Northern India from the mid- 7th to the 11th century.
  • It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers were members of the Gurjara (Gurjar) and Pratihara tribes; who were followers of Hinduism. Some of their clans later came to be known as Rajputs.
  • They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj

Mihir Bhoja: 836 - 885A. D

  • Titles: Mihira and Adivaraha
  • The Arab traveller, Sulaiman, writing in 851 A. D. , pays tribute to the efficiency of Bhoja՚s administration

Mahendrapala I: 885 - 908

  • Mahendrapala I was a ruler of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, the son of Mihir Bhoja I and queen Candra-Bhatta-Rika-Devi.
  • He was also mentioned on various inscriptions in Kathiawar, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh by names Mahindrapala, Mahendrayudha, Mahisapaladeva, and also Nirbhayaraja and Nirbhayanarendra in the plays of Rajasekhara.
  • Patronized Rajasekhara-author of Kapuramanjari and Kavyamimansa

Candellas of Jejakabhukti:

  • Inhabitant: Also known as Candratreyas ruled Bundel-khanda.
  • Capital: Kharjuravahaka.
  • Founder: Nannuka

Vidyadhara

  • Ghazni invasion 1019 and 1022
  • Killed the Pratihara king Rajyapala in 1019
  • Finally Qutubuddin captured, most dedicated resistance against Ghazni

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