Kingdoms in India-Gauda Kingdom, Pala Empire, Chandras, Devas, Eastern Gangas, Kalachuris of Tripuri, Gujara-Pratiharas and Candellas of Jejakabhukt

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Map Showing Kingdoms of India

Gauda Kingdome (590 – 626 AD)

Tufan or Tibetan Empire and Neighbouring Regions

Gauda Kingdom was a Kingdom located in Bengal in ancient and medieval times.

King Shashanka has separate political entity in a unified Bengal called Gauda.


  1. Shashanka (590 - 625)
  2. Manava (625 - 626)

(1) Shashanka (590 - 625)

  • He ruled in 7th century AD, from 590 AD and 625 AD.
  • He is the contemporary of Harsha and of Bhaskar Varman of Kamarupa.
  • His capital was at Karnasuvarna, 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi) south-west of Baharampur, headquarters of Murshidabad district.
  • The development of the Bengali calendar is often attributed to Shashanka because the starting date falls within his reign.

(2) Manava (625 - 626)

  • Manava was the son and the king of Gauda, Shashanka.
  • He has succeeded hi father after his death.
  • He was the last recorded ruler of the dynasty and was likely deposed by Harshavardhana or Bhaskaravarman.
  • He ruled as king for 8 months.
  • As per Sharadindu Bandhyopadhyay՚s Novel ‘Gour Mallar’ ManabDeb (King Manava) had his son.
  • His name was ‘Bajra Dev’ (Bajra) and he was the king of Gauda for only 1 day.

Pala Empire of Bengal

  • During the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal the Pala Empire was an imperial power.
  • Named after ruling dynasty rulers bore names ending with the suffix of Pala, which meant “protector” in the ancient language of Prakrit.
  • They were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism.
  • The empire was founded when Gopala was elected as emperor of Gauda in 750.
Map of Pala Empire and Neighbouring Regions

Gopala (Ruled C. 750s – 770s CE)

  • Gopala was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal region of the Indian Subcontinent.
  • The last morpheme of his name Pala means “protector” and was used as an ending for the names of all the Pala monarchs.
  • Pala does not suggest or indicate any ethnic or caste considerations of the Pala dynasty.
  • He came to power around 750 CE in Gaur after being elected by a group of regional chieftains.
  • According to Tibetan Taranath: Gopala built the celebrated monastery at Odantapuri and reigned for 45 years

Dharmapala: 770 - 810 a. D

  • Dharmapala (ruled 8th century) was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal region in the Indian Subcontinent.
  • He was the son Gopala and succeeds him.
  • He greatly expanded the boundaries of the empire, and made the Palas a dominant power in the northern and eastern India.
  • He was called as Vangapati or Gaudesvara
  • Mudagiri (Monghyr) was the capital of the Palas.
  • He had been regarded as the Uttarapathaswami
  • Bhoja, Matsya, Madra, Kuru, Yadu, Yavana, Avanti, Gandhara and Kira paid obeisance to Dharmapala.
  • Defeated Indrayudh and installed Chakrayudh.
  • Defeated by Pratihara Nagabhatta II and seized Kannauj.
  • Founded Vikramashila University and revived Nalanda University.


  • Inhabitants: Rohitagiri (Bihar feudatories of Palas) Capital: Vikrampura

Srichandra: 925 - 975 a. D

  • Son of Trailokyachavdra. Declared independence and brought all the chiefs of Vanga and captured Chand-radvipa.
  • Kalyanachandra, Ladaha-chandra and Govindchandra was defeated by Rajendra Chola in 1025.
  • Overthrown by Yadavas, also known as Varmanas.


  • Inhabitants: Yadava race were originally the ruler of Simhapur (Singur Hooghly district) Senas
  • Inhabitant: Daksinapth; Founder Samantasena himself, Kshatriya of Karnata and born in a family of Brahman Kshatriya at a place called Radha in West Bengal

Vijavasena: 1093

  • Deopara inscriptions composed by the poet Dhoyi defeated Nepal, Vira, Gauda, Kamrupa. Gauda wrested from last Pala King Madanapala.
  • Capitals: Vikramapura, East Bengal, Vijayapura, West Bengal;

Ballalasena: 1165 - 1185

  • Laghubharata and Ballalacarita inform that he included Mithila.
  • Wrote Danasagara on Smriti; and Adbhutasgara on astronomy.
  • Introduced Kulinism in Bengal.

Laksmanasena: 1187

  • Defeated Jayachandra of Gahadavala
  • Defeated King of Kasi and conquered Prayagjotisa
  • Bakhtiyar Khalji made attack on 1194 and wrested Nadia (Lakshmanavati or Lakhnauti) and forced him to Vikramapura
  • Devout of Vaishnavism
  • Founded Lakhnauti
  • Patronized Gita Govinda՚s author, Jayadeva,
  • Dhoyi who wrote Pavanadutam,
  • Halayudha, the linguist


  • Inhabitant: reigned in Samatata lower Bengal.
  • Founder: Damodara: supremacy over Samatata
  • Dasrathadeva: conquered Vanga
  • Transferred his capital to Vikrampura

Eastern Gangas

  • Inhabitants: Kolahala (Kolar)
  • Therefore branch of Gangas of Mysore
  • Anantavarman Choda Ganga: 1077 - 1147
  • Father Rajaraja Ganga by his Chola wife: Rajasundri daughter of Rajendra Chola
  • Invaded by Lakshmansena
  • Continued struggle with Turks.

Kalachuris of Tripuri

  • The Kalachuri Empire was the name used by two kingdoms who had a succession of dynasties from the 10th - 12th centuries, one ruling over areas in Central India and were called Chedi or Haihaya and the other the southern Kalachuri who ruled over parts of Karnataka


Political Map of the Kannauj Triangle
  • Inhabitants: 36 clans, first local officials to carve out a series of privilege and Agni-Kula origin, traces antecedents from Lakshmana
  • The Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an Indian imperial power that ruled much of Northern India from the mid- 7th to the 11th century.
  • It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers were members of the Gurjara (Gurjar) and Pratihara tribes; who were followers of Hinduism. Some of their clans later came to be known as Rajputs.
  • They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj

Mihir Bhoja: 836 - 885A. D

  • Titles: Mihira and Adivaraha
  • The Arab traveller, Sulaiman, writing in 851 A. D. , pays tribute to the efficiency of Bhoja՚s administration

Mahendrapala I: 885 - 908

  • Mahendrapala I was a ruler of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, the son of Mihir Bhoja I and queen Candra-Bhatta-Rika-Devi.
  • He was also mentioned on various inscriptions in Kathiawar, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh by names Mahindrapala, Mahendrayudha, Mahisapaladeva, and also Nirbhayaraja and Nirbhayanarendra in the plays of Rajasekhara.
  • Patronized Rajasekhara-author of Kapuramanjari and Kavyamimansa

Candellas of Jejakabhukti:

  • Inhabitant: Also known as Candratreyas ruled Bundel-khanda.
  • Capital: Kharjuravahaka.
  • Founder: Nannuka


  • Ghazni invasion 1019 and 1022
  • Killed the Pratihara king Rajyapala in 1019
  • Finally Qutubuddin captured, most dedicated resistance against Ghazni

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