Kingdoms in India: Paramaras, Chalukvas, Karkota Dynasty, Lohara Dynasty, Utpala Dynasty, Harsha Rashtrakutas, Chalukyan Badami, Chalukyas, & Cholas

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Paramaras of Malwa

Paramaras Dynasty
  • The Paramara dynasty was an early medieval Indian royal Rajput house that ruled over the Malwa region in central India during c. 800 - 1305 CE.
  • Its most significant ruler was Bhoja I.
  • The seat of the Paramara kingdom was Dharanagara, the present day Dhar city in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Capital: Ujjain, transferred to Dhara (M. P)
  • Malwa՚s Inhabitants: probably a vassal of Pratiharas or Rashtrakutas

Bhoja: 993

  • Titles: Kaviraja
  • Founded Bhojasala College, wrote Ayurveda -saravasva (medicine)
  • Samarangana- sutra-dhara (architecture)
  • Attacked by Chalukyas and Kalachuris

Chalukvas of Gujarat

Map of Chalukvas Dynasty
  • Inhabitant: Gujarat-Anhilwara or Solankis.
  • Capital: Anhilwara
  • Founder: Mularaja I Camundaraja 995

Bhima I: 1022 - 1064

  • 1025 Ghazni plundered Somnath Bhima I after his departure revived the Chalukya power and formed a confederacy with Lakshmi Kama Kalacuri against the Paramaras

Cahamanas of Sekambhar

  • Inhabitants: Sakambha-ridesa also known as Sapadalaksha
  • Capital: Sakambhari, modern Sambhar in Rajasthan
  • Founder: Simharaja; declared independence from Pratiharas

Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva 1153 - 64

  • An inscription found at Bijolia (Mewar) specially credits him with conquest of Delhi which must have wrested from Vijayachandra Gahadavalas or Tomars
  • The Harakeli -Nataka, portions of which were recovered form an inscribed stone slab on the wall of a mosque named Adhai-din-Ka-Jhopra, is supposed to be his composition;
  • Lalita Vigraharaja -similarly discovered, was . written in his honour by Mahakavi Somadeva.

Prithviraja III Rai Pithora

  • Put down the revolt of Nagarjuna, son of his uncle Vigraharaja.
  • Defeated the Chandella Paramardi, and occupied Mahoba and other fortresses in Bundelkhand.
  • Invaded Chalukya Bhima III of Gujarat.
  • Battle of Tarain.

Guhilas of Mewar:

  • Capital: Nagahrada transferred to Aghata in lOthA. D.
  • Founder: Guhadatta- 6th AD


Karkota Dynasty (625 to 1003 CE)

Detailed Map of Karkota Dynasty
  • Founded by Durlabhavarman in 627 A. D.

Tarapida Lalitaditya Muk-Tapida-724 - 760

  • Alliance with Yasova-rman. Defeated Tibetans.
  • Kalhana gives information about his conquests.
  • Repulsed Arab, won victory over Kambojas Dards and Turks.
  • Sent missions to China.
  • Foundation of Martanda Temple.
  • His court adorned by Kshiraswamin, Udbhata, Damodara Gupta, Vamana.

Utpala Dynasty

  • Founded by Avantivarman 855 - 883

Lohara Dynasty

  • Founded by Samgra-maraja under his low caste favourities.
  • The Lohara dynasty were Hindu rulers of Kashmir between 1003 and approximately 1320.
  • The early history of the dynasty was described in the Rajatarangini a work written by Kalhana in the mid- 12th century and upon which many and perhaps all studies of the first 150 years of the dynasty depend

Harsha (C. 590 - 640)

Detailed Map of Harsha Empier
  • Introduced custom of putting on head dress - ear rings in Kashmir overthrown by the two brothers Ucchala and Sussala of collateral Lohara dynasty.
  • Harsha (c. 590 – 647) , also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 from his capital Kanauj.
  • He belonged to Pushyabhuti Dynasty.
  • He was the son of Prabhakarvardhana who defeated the Huna invaders and the younger brother of Rajyavardhana, a king of Thanesar, Haryana.
  • He was the founder and ruler of the Empire of Harsha and at the height of his power his empire spanned the Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bengal, Odisha and the entire Indo-Gangetic plain north of the Narmada River.


Detailed Map of Rashtrakutas Empire
  • Rashtrakuta was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.
  • The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th -century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India.

Chalukyan Badami Origin (543 - 753)

  • Origin: A descent from Satyaki, a Yadava chief of north but Chalukyan records attributes them as Kutunibins and agriculturists.
  • Capital: Manyakhet, (Mal-khed) Modern Sholapur. Founder: Dantivarman or Dantidurga

Amoghavarsha: 814 - 878 a. D

  • Jinasena who wrote Adipurana, Mahavira-charyas who wrote Gantiasara Samgraha; and Saktayana who wrote Amoghavirilti.
  • Amoghavarsa himself wrote “Kavirajamarga” which is the earliest Kannada work on poetics.
  • Equated with Vikramaditya and Sulaiman, an Arab traveller, rates him equal to the ‘Caliph of Baghdad and Turkey’ .

Chalukyas of Kalvana

  • Nearest enemy called Cholas of Tanjore.
  • Capital Kalyani (Karnataka) Origin: Overthrew Rashtrakutas.
  • Founder: Tailpa or Taila n 974 - 997

Hoysalas of Darasamundra

  • Founder: Nrpakama: a petty chieftain of Sasakpura.

Vinayaditva Bhillama V 1189 - 1220

  • Over threw Somsevara IV

Kakatiyas of Warangal 1000 - 1326

  • Bheta I: A sudra, ruled Naldona
  • Prola I: Chalukyan supremacy
  • Bheta II: Received salbi sariya and Karimmagar from Chalukya Vikramaditya


Detaild Map of Chola Empire
  • Nearest rival Chalukyas of Kalyana
  • Origin: Stemmed up from the of Pallavas of Kanchi;
  • Capital: Tanjore
  • Founder: Vijayalaya 850 AD 857 AD

Rajaraja I: 985 - 1014

  • Titles: Mummadai Chola-deva (Chola 3 times) , Immadi Chola (2 times Chola) , Nurmadi (100 times Chola) ,
  • Sri Lanka - named Mummadi Cholamandalam; captured Maldives and captured 1200 islands and captured a part of Ceylon.
  • Ardent supporter of Shaivism; therefore, assumed title: Shivapada Shekhara
  • Granted village for maintenance of Buddhist viharas, built by a King of a Sailendra dynasty at Nagapattam called Maravijayotungavarman
  • Introduced the practice of giving royal names to idols,
  • local self government; Revenue , In 1000 got lands measured.
  • Introduction of the system of auditing of the accounts of the village assemblies and other local bodies.
  • Built ternple of Rajarajesh-wara at Tanjore, Vishnu Temples.
  • Introduced system of yuvaraja in the system of administration.
  • Encouraged trade with S. E. Asia and China.
  • Greatest contributions:-the tradition of beginning the Chola epigraphs with historical introductions.
  • Wife was Lokamahadevi, and daughter was Kundava (eldest) .

Rajendra Chola 1014 - 1044

  • Titles:-Gangai konda chola, Mudikonda, Kadarana-konda, Pandita Chola, Uttama Chola
  • In 1012 declared Yuvaraja
  • In 1017 annexed whole of Sri Lanka.
  • Founded new capital Gangaikondacholapuram, Trichirapalli (T. N.)
  • Irrigation: immense artificial tank which was filled by water from the channels of Vellar Rivers, called Chola Tank

Rajadhiraja 1044 - 1052

  • Asvamedha sacrifices were conducted in 1044.
  • Subdued the Pandyan and Kerala and Sri Lankan League.
  • Asvamedha celebration
  • Defeated and killed by Somesvara I in Battle of Koppam; mentioned as Annaimerunjina (one who died on elephant back) .
  • Seized Kolapuram and burnt down Jaina Temple.

Rajendrachola II (Kulottunga I) (1070 - 1120)

  • Title: Talakadgonda, Tribh-uvanachakravarti, Sun ′ gand-havriddha (who abolished Taxes: Sugandh or Sankam, Viruddharaj a-Bhy ankara.
  • Matrimonial alliance:-Vimaladitya of Vengi.
  • Trade with china; send embassies.
  • Internal administrative reforms.
  • Sankam (tariff) abolished.
  • In1086, ordered second survey of the land instead of self-glorification, and tried to protect fiscal resources.
  • Mother՚s name: Amang-devi (Daughter of Rajendra Chola I) and Father՚s name was Rajaraja I; he was 75 % Chola by blood.


  • Kinship was based on divine origin; king was the fountainhead and his oral orders were called Tiruva-kyakelavi. It was the law.
  • They had four capitals:
  • Tanjore,
  • Gangaikondacholapuram,
  • Mundik-ondacholapuram and
  • Kanchi
  • Higher officials were called: Perundaran and Lower officials were called Sirutaram
  • Dispatch Clerks: Vidai-adhikari
  • Welfare state and probably taxation was quite low and the village council collected public revenue in both cash and kind.
  • Army consisted of: Elephant, Cavalry and Infantry. Elephant 60,000 and Army 1,50, 000.
  • Kadagam or Padavidu was Cantonment.
  • Horses imported from Arabia.
  • Velakaras: King՚s Bodyguard.
  • In the army mostly Keralans were appointed
  • Army consisted mainly of Kaikolas (Men with strong arms)
  • King use to lead army from the front: Rajaditya killed in Takkolam and Rajadhiraja killed in Koppam.
  • Mahadandanayaka; Nayaka and Senapati (Vellalas) ; wars were fought mainly for me shake of cattle lifting
  • Hero of the war was called Kshatriyashikamani.
  • During the time of Rajaraja I: Naval force reached climax: won over Coromandal, Malabar and Bay of Bengal was reduced to Chola Lake.
  • State was consisted of Mandalam, then Mandalam was divided into Valanadu or Nadu and Nadu was divided into Kurram or Kottam and then it was autonomous units.
  • Provinces were headed by Royal Blood.
  • Chola Government was famous for self-government.
  • The commercial activities held at Nagaram
  • Village Administration was divided into two parts: Ur and Sabha. We have little information reagrding Ur: it may be organised village sabha in which people were owners of land and they had membership in local bodies.
  • Mahasabha: Agrahara/Brahmdeya grants) found mainly in Tondaimandalam and Cholamandalam
  • Parantaka՚s Uttaramerur Inscription (919 and 921) gives information about the functioning of the Sabha.
  • The Member of Executive Committee of Sabha was called Variyam; the qualification for the membership was following:
  • Ownership of more than l/ 4th veli (about acre and half) ; 1 Veli was 6 acres.
  • Residence in a house built on own՚s site.
  • Age 35 - 70.
  • Knowledge of Vedic literature.
  • If does not own l/ 4th of veli and can have knowledge of one Veda and l/ 8th veli was must.


  1. 3 years or more has been member of, a committee
  2. If the person concerned does not timely submit its accounts
  3. If there was any incest (prohibited relationship within family)
  4. Those who had stolen the property of pthers.
  5. Sabha had 30 members: called Kudunibus; out of thirty members 3 main committees were there:
  6. Garden and Tank Committee: 12 Numbers: called SamvatsaraVariyum
  7. Tank committee: Erivariyum: 06 Members
  8. Garden Committee on maintenance of Roads: Tottavariyait
  9. There was as many as two standing committees: Panchavaravariyum (Standing committee) and Ponava-riyam (Annual Committee)
  10. The menders are called Veriyaperumakal and Mahasabhd was called Perugural and members called Perumakal Sabha congregated near a temple tree a bank of river and resolutions of Sabha was called Vyavasfhai

Powers of Sabha

  1. Possessed proprietary rights over ″ the communal land
  2. Did everything preliminary to the land required by the Central government;
  3. Cooperated with royal officials in estimating and assessing and assessing revenue;
  4. The Government, in order to bring change in the classification of land needed to consult them
  5. Collected taxes for the welfare of the villages.
  6. Assisted the Police in order to prevent crime
  7. Also had judicial powers: Nyayattar (Nattar: assembly of Nadu)
  8. Any grant (Dharma-variyam) , supervision, maintained of road, irrigation, tanks and gardens.
  9. Padikavalknh: Police tax
  10. Udankuttan: Royal ATtendants.

Society and Economy

  • Salabhoga: Land granted for educational purposes
  • Paddy was the medium of exchange
  • There were three main cereals: Samidhanya; Sukha and rice
  • Dams for irrigation surrounded: Highest dam Srirangam: 1080 ft
  • Shiraf was the meeting point of the traders;
  • According to Morco Polo Ginger and Cinamom was available in. Pandvaa state.
  • According to Idrisi, a merchant: cardamom: Hills of Fundrina (Malabar)
  • According to Ibn Sayyid: Malabar was centre of pepper and Sandlewood: Malaya Hill, in Western Ghat.
  • Chau Ju Kua: Tusks (Ivory) , Drugs and Camphor
  • Textile production was prominent and was exported. Perfumes, spices and precious stones to China; Gujarat was famous for Textile.
  • Import: Horse: Arabia/Persia (220 dinar) ; Horse dealer: Kudiraicheti
  • Trading Corporations was called: Nnanadeshi-tissaiyaira-tuaniruvar
  • Smriti Chandrika says: Trade was extended up to Farmosa
  • Guild organisation was Manigramam or Valaniyar
  • College was called Inairama, Tirubhuvani, Tiruvadu, Tiruvoryur
  • The society was divided into two groups: Valangai (traders, cultivators, and labourers) and Idangai (craftsman)