Mughal Empire Jahangir

Jahangir (1605-1628)

  • Jahangir was born in 1569, 9th September, at Fatehpur Sikri;

  • His original name was Md. Sultan Salim;

  • Akbar called him Sheikhu Baba;

  • Maulana Mir Ralan Harvi was his 1st teacher, he taught him Muslim theology;

  • Seikh Ahmad and Qutub-ud-din Md. Khan Atga were also his teachers;

  • In 1582, Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan became his teacher;

  • Jahangir learnt Persian and Turkish and also excelled in calligraphy;

  • He also showed considerable interest in history, Botany, Zoology, Geography and Art;

  • He participated in the Kabul expedition in 1581, at the age of 12 years; '

  • At the age of 15 he was married to Manbai-daughter of Raja Bhagwandas of Amber;

  • She died in 1604;

  • He was jealous of Abul Fazal;

  • On 3rd November 1605, at the age of 36, he ascended the throne in the Agra fort;

  • His immediate rivalry was with Khusro;

  • Immediately after his succession, Bir Singh Bundela (Abul Fazal's Murderer) was given a mansab of 3000;

  • After his accession, he promulgated 12 edicts and ordinances for the welfare of the people. They are : -

  • Forbidden Tamgha and Mir Bahri (river tolls);

  • Sarais were built and Mutasaddi was incharge;

  • Darbahra was abandoned;

  • Nobody should capture others house;

  • Cutting of nose and ears forbidden;

  • Jagidar should be checked;

  • Jahangir had to face the rebellion of Khusro;

  • He escaped on 6th April, 1606;

  • He was captured at Lahore;

  • The 5th Guru of the Sikhs - Guru Arjun was executed;

  • He had given shelter at Taran. Initially he was fined Rs.5000, but on his denial he was executed;

  • Prince Khusro was blinded, but with the treatment of a Persian Physician gained sight in one eye;

NOORJAHAN (1611-1645): -

  • Her original name was Mehru Nisa;

  • Her family was called 'NOORJAHAN'S JUNTA'

  1. Father : - Mirza Gyas Begh - belonged to a nobel family to Tehran;

  2. Mother: - Asmal Begum;

  3. Brothers : - Asaf Khan and Abdul Hassan;

  4. Daughter : - Ladili Begum;

  • At the age of 18 years, she was married to Ali Quili Begh Istajlu, better known as Sher Afghan (Tiger Thrower), who had first served under Shah Ismail II and came to India and served under Akbar;

  • Given a Jagir in Bengal;

  • Qutubuddin sent as the Governor of Bengal in 1606;

  • He reported that Sher Afghan tried to rebel;

  • Later Qutubuddin's men killed Sher Afghan and Mehru Nisa was sent to the capital and entrusted to the care of Jahangir's mother;

  • After 4 years Jahangir married her;

  • In 1612, she became Badshah Begum and in 1616, she got the title of Noor Mahal;

  • Even joint farmans were issued in her name and coins were also struck;

  • Due to her influence her father got the Mansab of 7000-7000 and he adopted the title of ITIMAD-UD-DAULLAH;

  • Abdul Hassan (Brother ) was appointed as Mir Saman;

  • Asaf Khan (1st Brother) was given the 6000-6000 mansab;

  • In 1612, Anjumand Bano Begum - Mumtaz Mahal -was married to prince Khurram;

  • Ladili Begum (daughter) was married to Prince Shariyar in 1620;

  • From 1622 onwards, Prince Khurram and Noorjahan drifted apart;

  • Mahabat Khan protested against Noorjahan's interference and warned Jahangir;

  • Noorjahan came to know that Mahabat Khan favoured Khurram;

  • In January 1622, Prince Khusro died of 'Colic';

  • Khusro was buried in Burhanpur but later his remains were transferred to

  • Allahabad;

  • Jahangir's health started Malwa;

  • There he asked for the help of Malik Amber who refused;

  • Khurram diverted to east and captured Bihar;

  • In all this, Mahabat Khan's position became complicated;

  • He tried to make an alliance with Prince Parvez and played an important role in quelling Khurram's rebellion;

  • Meantime, Mahabat Khan revolted against Jahangir and captured him;

  • Noorjahan was able to free Jahangir;

  • Mahabat Khan tried to attack Prince Khurram, but started mclining towards him;

  • Mahabat Khan joined the prince;

  • On 7th November, 1627, Jahangir died at Lahore;

Personality of Jahangir:-

  • In October, 1626, Prince Parvez died at Burhanpur due

  • deteriorating;

  • Noorjahan insighted Jahangir to appoint Khurram in Qandhar;

  • Khurram refused and became rebellious and tried to capture Agra, but failed and had to retire to Deccan and to alcohol drinking;

  • He continued to maintain good relations with the Portuguese;

  • He sent an embassy to Goa in 1607 and 1610;

  • In 1613, the Portuguese seized 4 imperial vessels near Surat. This strained their relationship;

  • Jahangii" ordered Muqarrar Khan-Governor or Surat to capture the Portuguese Muqarrar Khan made an alliance with pownton, because he knew that the Mughals did not have 3 strong navy and defeated the Portuguese;

  • Jahangir had good relations with Jesuits, especially with Father Xavier and Pinheiro, but Father died in 1617 and Pinheiro in 1618;

  • In August, 1608, captain Hawkins reached Surat with a letter from James I - the king of England;

  • In 1609, he came to the Darbar and was called English Khan;

  • He stayed in Agra between 1609-1611;

  • His mission was a failure;

  • In 1612 - Paul Canning, 1614 - William Edwards and 1615 - Thomas Roe, came to his court;

  • They were followed by Fransisco Palsert and Nicolas;

  • The relations between the Mughals and English remained neutral;

  • Persia had good relations with India, but the bone of contention was Qandhar;

  • Jahangir tried to conquer Qandhar, but it proved to be his greatest failure;

  • Jahangir did not maintain usual relations with Transoxinia;

Religious Policy:-

  • Jahangir was tolerant;

  • Had some impact on Nawab Murtaza Khan and Mullah Yazdin and Seikh Ahmad Sirhind, but was not affected by them;

  • He did not re-impose Jazia;

  • Hindu festivals like Rakhi and Dussehra were celebrated;

  • Tuladan - weighing of emperor against Gold-was also observed;

  • Some of his actions may be regarded as orthodox:-

    1. allowed daily allowances to new converts;

    2. he declared forcible conversion to be illegal;

    3. attitude towards the Sikhs was controversial;

    4. he was known for his justice;

    5. arrested Sheikh Ahmad Sirhind for violating Sijda;

    6. punished Sheikh Ibrahim baba for the same;

  • Jahangir prosecuted Jains of Gujarat because of political activities of Man Singh;

  • He visited Ajmer in his 8th Regnal year., where he destroyed the temple of Bhagwat;

  • The Bhang and wine's public sale was prohibited;

  • Gambling and Sati were abandoned;

  • The admission of Hindus to the higher public service continued of the 47 mansabdars above the rank of 3000, 6 were Hindus;

  • Tobacco was introduced during his reign;

  • He wrote a book TUJUK-i-JAHANGIR, which was later elucidated by 3 Authors :-

  1. Kamgar Khan - Mansiri-i-Jahangiri;

  2. Mutamid Khan - Iqbalnama-i- Jahangir;

  3. Md. Haidi - Haft Gulshan;