NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 5: The Age of Industrialisation YoutTube Lecture Handouts

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Image of Dawn of the Century

Image of Dawn of the Century

Image of Dawn of the Century

  • Music publisher ET Paull’s book – “Dawn of the Century” – goddess like figure bearing flag of new century on wheels with wings symbolizing time. Behind her are signs of progress – railway, camera, machines etc.

  • 2 Magicians in Inland Printers - Aladdin is shown as representing the East and the past, the mechanic stands for the West and modernity

Image of Two Magicians

Image of Two Magicians

Image of Two Magicians

  • Industrialization focused on growth of factory and industrial workers as factory workers

  • Before factories there was proto-industrialization (merchants in 17th & 18th century moved to countryside and persuaded peasants to produce for international market) – with expansion of trade and new colonies – demand for goods increased

  • This expansion was not possible in towns as urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful – associations trained craftspeople, regulated price and restricted new entry so new merchants went to countryside

  • In countryside – open fields were disappearing and commons were enclosed; those who gathered firewood and hay were now looking for alternate income; income from proto-industrialization supplemented agricultural income

  • Merchants were based in towns but work was done in countryside - Merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool stapler, and carried it to the spinners; yarn (thread) that was spun was taken in subsequent stages of production to weavers, fullers, and then to dyers. The finishing was done in London (became finishing center) before the export. Each merchant had around 20-25 workers at each stage (in all around 100 across all stages)

Coming of Factories

  • Earliest factories in England in 1730s. In late 18th century – factories multiplied

  • Cotton production boomed in late 19th century - In 1760 Britain was importing 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton & by 1787 this import soared to 22 million pounds

  • Inventions increased efficiency at each stage - carding, twisting, spinning, and rolling – enhanced output per worker with stronger yarn

  • Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill, now new machines came up in mills with management under one roof and careful supervision on quality and labor regulations

  • In early 19th century – factories became integral part of English landscape with concentration on new mills; production in bylanes and workshops continued

Pace of Industrial Change

  • Most dynamic industries were cotton and metals. Cotton was leading industrial sector till 1840s. Iron & steel demand increased with expansion of railways from 1840s in Britain and 1860s in colonies. By 1873, Britain exported iron of Pound 77 billion which was double that of cotton

  • New industries could not displace traditional industries – by end of 19th century – less than 20% in advanced industrial sectors. Textile was dynamic sector and majority produced in domestic units

  • Pace of change in the ‘traditional’ industries was not set by steam-powered cotton or metal industries. Small innovations were basis of growth in non-mechanized sectors

  • Technological changes occurred slowly and did not spread dramatically, new technology was expensive and people were cautious about using it; repairs were costly

  • Steam engine: James Watt improved steam engine produced by Newcomen and patented the new engine in 1781. His industrialist friend Mathew Boulton manufactured the new model but for years he could find no buyers. In early 119th century, there were no more than 321 steam engines all over England. Of these, 80 were in cotton industries, nine in wool industries, and the rest in mining, canal works and iron works. Steam engines were not used in any of the other industries

  • Mid-19th century – workers were not machine operators but traditional craftsperson

Hand Labor and Steam Power

  • No shortage of labor and poor peasants moved from countryside for job search

  • With lots of labor, wages are low – so they did not want to introduce machines to get rid of labor

  • For some industries, labor was seasonal (gas work and breweries) – more labor in peak demand in cold months

  • Bookbinders and printers required extra labor during Christmas season; again ship repair in winters required labor

  • Machines were oriented to producing uniforms, standardized goods for a mass market but the demand was for intricate designs and specific shapes

  • Mid-19th century – 500 varieties of hammers and 45 kinds of axes – required human intervention

  • In Victorian Britain, upper classes – aristocrats and bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand. Handmade products came to symbolize refinement and class. They were better finished, individually produced, and carefully designed. Machine goods were for exports.

  • Where labor availability was issue, machines were preferred as in 19th century America

Life of Workers

  • Many went to cities for jobs

  • Jobs were easy if relatives or friends were there in factory

  • Those without social connections had to wait for weeks

  • Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities

  • Seasonality in work – prolonged period without work, many looked for odd jobs which were difficult to find in mid-19th century

  • Wages increased but that tell us little about welfare of workers. When prices rose, real value of what workers earned fell during Napoleonic wars. Income depended not on the wage rate alone but also period of employment (number of days of work). At best time in mid-19th century – 10% population was poor but this increased to 35-75% during economic slump of 1830s

  • Spinning Jenny – Devised by James Hargreaves in 1764, this machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced labor demand – jobs were lost

  • Jobs came up in building activities – roads, rails, tunnels, drainage and sewer lines. Workers in transportation doubled in 1840s and doubled again in next 30 years

Industrialization in Colonies

  • Before machines, silk and cotton from India dominated world

  • India was known for finer cloth – taken by Armenian and Persian merchants from Punjab to Afghanistan, Persia and Central Asia – carried on camel back and sea trade

  • Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports; Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports

  • Merchants and bankers were involved – merchants linked port towns to inland regions (gave advances to weavers, procured cloth and carried supplies) but these were disintegrating by 1750s

  • European companies gained power – received concessions from local courts and monopoly rights to trade – led to decline of old ports of Surat and Hoogly (credits decreased and local bankers went bankrupt). Value of trade decreased from 16 million to 3 million in 1740s. New ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew – it was indicator of strengthening colonial powers

  • Trade was controlled by European companies and carried in European ships

  • Consolidation of East India Company power after 1760s did not initially lead to decline in textile exports – was in great demand in Europe

  • French, Dutch and Portuguese competed for woven cloth – company officials complained of difficulties of supply and high prices

  • Once East India Company established political power it could assert monopoly right to trade – develop management to eliminate competition, control cost and ensure regular supply of cotton and silk

  • Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called gomastha to supervise weavers

  • It prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers by system of advances (weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material & those who took loan had to hand over cloth to gomastha)

  • As loans flowed in and demand increased weavers took advances. Many had small lands which they had to lease out for devote all their time to weaving. Clashes started between weavers and gomasthas (were outsiders with no long term social link with village – acted arrogantly, marched with sepoys and punished weavers for delays). Weavers lost the space to bargain and the price received from company was pretty low.

  • Weavers migrated from Carnatic and Bengal to establish in other areas. Weavers & traders revolted and refused loans, closed workshops and took as agricultural labor.

Manchester Comes to India

  • In 1772, Henry Patullo, a Company official, had ventured to say that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced goods of the same quality.

  • But it declined in 1811-12 it was 33% which reduced to 3% in 1850-51

  • Cotton industries developed in Britain, industrial groups’ pressurized government to put import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without competition and persuaded East India Company to sell it in India.

  • By end of 18th century there was no import of cotton in India, rose to 31% by 1850 and 50% by 1870s in terms of value of imports

  • Challenges for cotton weavers in India – collapsed exports and shrinking local market (low cost of machine made cloth from Britain). By 1860s weavers could not get supply of good quality cotton.

  • When American Civil War broke, cotton supplies from US were cut and Britain looked to India. So exports increased again and prices of raw cotton shot up & Indian weavers were starved of supplies at high prices. Factories in India started producing and machine goods came in which affected local weavers.

Factories Came Up

  • 1854 – 1st cotton mill in Bombay – production started 2 years later

  • By 1862 – 4 mill started work with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms

  • 1855- 1st jute mill in Bengal & again another in 1862

  • 1860s – Elgin Mill started in Kanpur & then in Ahmedabad

  • 1874 – 1st spinning and weaving mill of Madras began production

Entrepreneurs in India

  • British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England

  • In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s – but sank in business crisis in 1840s

  • In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata - built huge industrial empires in India, accumulated their initial wealth partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England

  • Seth Hukumchand - Marwari businessman who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, also traded with China

  • G.D. Birla – his father as well as grandfather

  • In 1912, J.N. Tata set up the first iron and steel works in India at Jamshedpur. Iron and steel industries in India started much later than textiles. In colonial India industrial machinery, railways and locomotives were mostly imported.

  • Merchants from Madras traded with Burma & others with Middle East and East Africa

  • Indian merchants were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export mostly raw materials and food grains – raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo – required by the British

  • Till WW-I, European Managing Agencies (Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co.) in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries (mainly tea and coffee plantations, mining, jute and indigo). These set up joint stock companies and managed them. In most instances Indian financiers provided capital while European Agencies made all investment and business decisions

Entry of Workers

  • In 1901, there were 584,000 workers in Indian factories. By 1946 the number was over 2,436,000.

  • Those who found no work in villages came to cities in industries.

  • 50% workers in Bombay industries came from Ratnagiri

  • Slowly workers travelled great distances for jobs to work in mills in Bombay and Calcutta

  • Number seeking work were always more than jobs available. Entry to mill was restricted and they employed jobber (old and trusted worker – became person with authority) to get new recruits

  • Factory workers increased over time but their proportion was small to total workforce

  • Early cotton mills in India produced coarse cotton yarn (thread) rather than fabric. When yarn was imported it was only of the superior variety. The yarn produced in Indian spinning mills was used by handloom weavers in India or exported to China.

  • Nationalists mobilized people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organized themselves to protect collective interest, pressurize government to increase tariff and grant concessions

  • After 1906, exports to China declined was they started their own mills. In India, it registered a shift from yarn to cloth

  • WW-I – British mills were busy in producing for war, imports from Manchester declined and Indian mills saw a home market to supply. Indian factories were called for war needs as well – bags, cloths, tents, boots – new factories were set up with multiple shifts – more workers and working hours leading to industrial boom

  • After war, Manchester could never regain the value and compete with US, Japan and Germany. Cotton production in Britain dropped drastically

  • Around 67% large industries in 1911 were located in Bengal and Bombay

  • Handicrafts expanded in 20th century between 1900 and 1940 – adopted new technology to improve production without pushing up costs

  • Weavers used looms with fly shuttle (device for weaving by ropes and pullies) – led to higher productivity per worker, higher production and reduced labor demand – mainly in Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin & Bengal

Image of Location of Large Scale Industries In 1931

Image of Location of Large Scale Industries in 1931

Image of Location of Large Scale Industries In 1931

  • Coarse cloth was bought by poor and finer cloth by well to do stable income group

  • Famines affected sale of Banarasi and Baluchari sarees

  • Woven border sarees and lungis and hankerchiefs of Madras could not replaced by mill

Market for Goods

  • Indian weavers resisted colonial control, demanded tariff protection, created their own space and extended market for produce

  • New consumers created by advertisements in newspapers, hoardings and TV.

  • “Made in Manchester” were the labels on cloth bundles from Manchester

  • Gripe Water calendar of 1928 by M.V. Dhurandhar - image of baby Krishna was most commonly used to popularize baby products

  • Labels showed words, texts and images (god, personages, emperors, nawabs) with illustrations

  • Manufacturers printed calendars to popularize there product – hung in tea shops and poor people’s home

  • If you care for the nation then buy products that Indians produce. Advertisements became a vehicle of nationalist message of swadeshi.