NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 12: Paintings, Buildings & Books YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 6 History

Chapter 12: Paintings, Buildings & Books

Iron Pillar

  • Mehrauli, Delhi

  • 7.2. m high

  • weighs over 3 tons

  • About 1500 years ago

  • Inscriptions of Chandragupta

  • Not rusted

Buildings

  • Stupa (mould) – has small box (relic casket) in center with bodily remains, mud brick layer added on top

  • Later mud brick on top

  • Dome like structure covered the stone slabs

Temple Structures

  • Pradakshina patha around stupa

  • Stone carvings to decorate stupa – 2000 yrs ago

  • Garbhagriha

  • Bhitargaon: tower – shikhara – on top of Garbhagriha

  • Mandapa – hall

  • Mahabalipuram (monolith) & Aihole (Durga temple)

How Temples Were Built?

  • Expensive – by kings and queens

  • Good quality stone – find, quarry and transport

  • Shaped & carved into pillars

  • Devotees brought gift to decorate (ivory gateway – Sanchi)

  • merchants, farmers, garland makers, perfumers, smiths

Paintings

Ajanta – Caves hollowed from hills – monasteries for Buddhist monks – painted in torch lights – 1500 yrs ago

Epics

  • Grand, long compositions, about heroic men and women, and include stories about gods

  • Tamil epic, Silappadikaram by Ilango – b/w Kovalan & Madhavi, wife Kannagi (moved from Puhar to Madurai) – Kovalan was wrongly accused & sentenced – Kannagi destroyed the entire city

  • Tamil epic, Manimekalai by Sattanar - 1400 yrs ago - story of daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi

  • Kalidasa – poem Meghaduta – monsoon cloud as messenger

Books

  • Puranas – old – stories about gods and goddesses, such as Vishnu, Shiva, Durga or Parvati – simple Sanskrit for women and shudras

  • Mahabharata – by Ved Vyas

  • Ramayana – (Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala) by Valmiki in Sanskrit

  • Jatakas & panchtantras

  • Zero by India

Aryabhatta

  • Mathematician and astronomer

  • In Sanskrit - Aryabhatiyam

  • Day and night by rotation

  • Sunrise and sunset daily

  • Explanation for eclipse

Paper

  • Invented in China – 1900 yrs ago – by Cai Lun

  • Korea – 1400 yrs ago & then Japan

  • Baghdad - 1800 yrs ago 7 then to Europe, Africa