NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 4: In the Earliest Cities YouTube Lecture Handouts

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City Layout

  • West: Higher & Smaller - Citadel

  • East: Lower & Large - lower town – walls of baked bricks (interlocking)

  • Mohenjo-Daro: Great Bath - lined with bricks, coated with plaster, and made water-tight with a layer of natural tar

  • Kalibangan and Lothal - fire altars

  • Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Lothal - store houses

Houses, Drains & Streets – Planned & Built at Same Time

  • One or two story

  • Built around courtyard

  • Each house had bathing area- wells to supply water

  • Covered drains – gentle slope

  • Small drains to bigger drains

  • Drains had inspection holes – for cleaning

Life in City

  • People planned construction of buildings (rulers)

  • Ornaments of gold, silver, bead

  • Scribes: people who wrote and prepared seals

  • Craftsperson – terracotta toys

  • Harappan seal: earliest form of writing – still not deciphered

Crafts

  • Stone weights made of chert

  • Beads made of carnelian, red stone

  • Copper & bronze: Tools, weapons, ornaments & vessels

  • Gold & silver: Ornaments and vessels

  • Seals of stone – rectangular – animals carved on them

  • Pots with black designs

  • Cotton in Mehrgarh – cloth

  • Spindle whorls – terracotta & faience (artificial with gum & sand or quartz) – to spin thread

  • Faience – used for bead, bangle, earrings

  • Specialist – cutting stone, polishing bead, carving seal

Raw Material

  • Naturally or by farmers – processed to produce finished goods

  • Copper: Rajasthan & Oman

  • Tin: Mixed with copper to make bronze – Afghanistan & Iran

  • Gold: Karnataka

  • Stones: Gujarat, Iran & Afghanistan

Food

  • Farmers & herders supplied food - wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed and mustard

  • Plough: to dig earth & plant seeds (wood)

  • Harappans reared cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo

  • Water & pasture around settlement

Harappan Towns in Gujarat

  • Dholavira: Khadir Beyt in Rann of Kutch - fresh water and fertile soil

  • Lothal: Sabarmati River, in Gujarat, close to the Gulf of Khambat - semi-precious stones

Decline of Civilization

  • Rivers dried up

  • Deforestation – no more grazing

  • Flooding

  • Rulers lost control

  • People moved to new settlements