NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 9: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Iron Tools

  • Around 3000 years ago

  • Found in megalithic burials

  • Axes and iron ploughshare

Irrigation

  • Canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes

  • More production

  • More revenue

  • Can pay taxes

Village Life – South

  • Large landowners: vellalar

  • Ordinary ploughmen: uzhavar

  • Landless labourers & slaves: kadaisiyar & adimai

Village Life – North

  • Headman: Grama bhojaka – Large Landowner – hired slaves, taxed, acted as judge

  • Independent farmers: Grihapatis

  • Dasas & Kammakaras

Sangam Literature

Table of Sangam Literature for History
Table of Sangam Literature For History

Sangam

Place of Organisation

Chairman

Kingdom

Books

First

Thenmadurai

Agastya

Pandiya

No books survived

Second

Kapatapuram

Earlier – Agastya Later – Tolkappiyar (a disciple of Agastaya)

Pandiya

Tolkappiyam (author – Tolkappiyar)

Third

Madurai

Nakkirar

Pandiya

Covers entire corpus of Sangam Literature

Image of Sangam Period For History

Image of Sangam Period for History

Image of Sangam Period For History

  • 2300 years ago

  • Composed in assemblies

  • Held in Madurai

Life in Cities

  • Jatakas: Stories by local people (STORY)

  • Written down by Buddhist Monks

  • Sculptor carved scenes

  • Capitals of Mahajanapadas

  • Rows of pots or ring wells (used as toilets, garbage dumps)

  • No remains of palaces, markets and homes – made of wood or mud

  • Account of travelers and sailors

Coins

Earliest – Punched marked (Silver or copper)

Image of Silver of Copper Coins For History

Image of Silver of Copper Coins for History

Image of Silver of Copper Coins For History

Crafts

Image of Crafts For History

Image of Crafts for History

Image of Crafts For History

  • Northern Black Polished Ware

  • Craft associations: Shrenis

Arikamedu

  • Pottery: Mediterranean region – amphorae (tall double-handled jars that contained liquids)

  • Stamped red-glazed pottery: Arretine Ware - named after city in Italy.

  • Pottery – Roman designs, Roman lamps, glassware and gems.

  • Small tank to dye cloths

Rome

  • Contemporary to Ganga valley

  • Capital of empires — Europe, North Africa, and West Asia

  • Augustus – Emperor (made city of brick to marble)

  • Amphitheaters & open arenas

  • Huge aqueducts — channels to supply water for baths, fountains and toilets.