NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 1: Tracing Changes through A Thousand Years (700 − 1750 CE) YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Al-Idrisi - Arab Geographer

  • South on the top

  • Small section of larger map

  • Solely concerned with portraying geography – No Imagery & text

  • Considered most accurate till 3 centuries

Then French Geographer – 1720s

  • Mentioned Kannauj (UP)

  • Used by European sailors

  • Atlas Nouveau by Guillaume de l’Isle – Europe & Americas

Sources

  • Coins

  • Inscriptions

  • Architecture

  • Textual Records – Paper getting cheaper

  • Manuscripts – by Hand – No printing press – By (Scribes – copyist) – Writings nashtaliq (cursive & easy) & Shikaste (dense & difficult)

  • Archives – Place to store Manuscripts

Innovations

  • Persian Wheel – Irrigation

  • Spinning Wheel – Weaving

  • Firearms – Combat

  • New Crops – Potato, Corn, Chilly, Tea, Coffee

Social Groups

  • Rajputs – “Rajputras” – Kshatriya – Valor & Loyality

  • Marathas

  • Sikhs

  • Jats

  • Ahoms

  • Kayasthas (caste of scribe and secretaries)

Social Differentiation

  • Based on jati/sub-caste, occupation and background

  • Jati – Own rules

  • Jati Panchayats – villages governed by chieftain

Regional Expanse

Image of Regional Expanse

Image of Regional Expanse

Image of Regional Expanse

Expanse of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq’s empire Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-87): From Bengal (Gauda) in the east to Ghazni (Gajjana) in Afghanistan in the west and included all of south India (Dravida). People of Gauda, Andhra, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat fled before his armies.

After Mughal Decline in 18th Century – Regional States

Image of After Mughal Decline In 18th Regional States

Image of After Mughal Decline in 18th Regional States

Image of After Mughal Decline In 18th Regional States

Discussions & Questions