NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 2: New Kings and Kingdoms YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Image of Specify New Kings And Kingdoms In Map

Image of Specify New Kings and Kingdoms in Map

Image of Specify New Kings And Kingdoms In Map

  • Samanta Maha-Samanta or Maha-Mandaleshwara (great lord of circle)

  • Rashtrakuta were subordinate to Chalukyas (Karnataka) – Dantidurga (Rashtrakuta chief) performed hiranya-garbha (golden womb) with Brahamanas – rebirth of Kshatriya

  • Kadamba Mayurasharman (Karnataka) & Gurjara-Pratihara Harichandra (Rajasthan) were Brahmanas who became warriors

  • Vishnu as Narasimha, man-lion – Ellora cave – Rashtrakuta

  • Gurjara-Pratihara style of temple building - Khajuraho (UNESCO World Heritage Site)

Administration

  • Title: Maharaja-adhiraja (great king, overlord of kings)

  • Title: Tribhuvana-chakravartin (lord of the three worlds)

  • Tax: Vetti - taken not in cash but in the form of forced labour

  • Tax: Kadamai or land revenue

Tax to:

  • Finance establishment

  • Construct temples

  • Fight wars

Kings Rewarded Brahamanas with Grant of Land – on Copper Plates (With Royal Seal) – Partly Sanskrit & Tamil

Image of Kings Rewarded Brahamanas With Grant of Land – on Copper Plates

Kings Rewarded Brahamanas with Grant – on Copper Plates

Image of Kings Rewarded Brahamanas With Grant of Land – on Copper Plates

Warfare

  • Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties fought for control over Kannauj – 3 parties - “tripartite struggle”

  • Power demonstration by Big Temples

  • Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, Afghanistan (997 to 1030) - Central Asia, Iran and NW India – raided Somnath – had scholar Al-Biruni wrote Kitab-al-Hind (consulted Sanskrit scholars)

  • Chahamanas (Chauhans) - Delhi and Ajmer – attempted to control Chalukyas of Gujarat & Gahadavalas of western UP. Prithviraja III (1168-1192) - defeated Afghan ruler Sultan Muhammad Ghori in 1191, but lost to him in 1192

Cholas

Image of Cholas

Image of Cholas

Image of Cholas

  • Muttaraiyar held power in the Kaveri delta - subordinate to Pallava kings of Kanchipuram

  • Vijayalaya (from ancient chiefly family of Cholas from Uraiyur) - captured delta from Muttaraiyar in the middle of 9th century & build Thanjavur town and temple for goddess Nishumbhasudini

  • Rajaraja-I – most powerful ruler of Cholas – king in 985 – his son Rajendra I did navy expeditions and expanded kingdom

  • Temples – Center of Craft (Thanjavur & Gangaikonda-cholapuram temples built by Rajaraja and Rajendra)

  • Chola bronze images - amongst the finest in the world (mainly deities & also devotees)

  • Channels with fertile soil - agriculture & rice production

Agriculture:

  • Forest cleared

  • Land levelled

  • Embankments made to prevent flooding

  • Canal construction – irrigation

  • Tanks – rainwater collection

Administration in Cholas

  • Ur: Settlement of peasants

  • Nadu: Group of villages (justice & tax collection) – supervised by Vellala caste (rich peasants)

  • Rich landowners’ titles - muvendavelan (velan or peasant serving three kings), araiyar (chief) – in respect

  • Land

  • Vellanvagai: land of non-Brahmana peasant proprietors

  • Brahmadeya: land gifted to Brahmanas

  • Shalabhoga: land for the maintenance of a school

  • Devadana, tirunamattukkani: land gifted to temples

  • Pallichchhandam: land donated to Jaina institutions

Requirements for Members of Sabha:

  • Owners of land from which land revenue is collected.

  • Own homes.

  • Age 35 to 70 years

  • Knowledge of the Vedas.

  • Well-versed in administrative matters and honest.

  • If anyone has been a member of any committee in the last three years, he cannot become a member of another committee.

  • Anyone who has not submitted his accounts, as well as those of his relatives, cannot contest the elections

  • Periyapuranam 12th Century Tamil work – On lives of ordinary men and women

  • China – Tang Dynasty (300 years from 7th to 10th century) – Capital Xi’an - administered by bureaucracy recruited by an examination – till 1911.