NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 3: The Delhi Sultans YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Delhi

  • 1st capital under Tomara Rajputs in 12th Century (defeated by Chauhans of Ajmer)

  • Coins minted – called Delhiwal

  • Jain merchants center

  • As a sultanate empire in 13th Century

  • Histories called tarikh (singular) / tawarikh (plural) in Persian by learned scholars – lived in cities, wrote for good rewards & maintain social order on birth right and gender distinctions (1236: Raziya daughter of Iltutmish became emperor but was removed in 1240 - Minhaj-i Siraj, recognized that she was more able and qualified than all her brothers)

  • Rudramadevi (1262-1289), of Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, part of modern Andhra Pradesh – Pretended as male and changed name

  • Queen Didda in Kashmir (980-1003) has title “didi” or “elder sister” - loved ruler by her subjects.

Prepare Manuscript

  • Prepare Paper

  • Write text

  • Melt gold

  • Prepare Binding

Circle of Justice

Kings Soldiers Salaries Revenue (by peasants) Happy king promotes justice

Image of India Habitat Centre

Image of India Habitat Centre

Image of India Habitat Centre

Image of Comparison of Medieval And Modern Cities Hampi Surat Masulipatnam

Comparison of Medieval and Modern Cities- Hampi, Surat, Masulipatnam

Image of Comparison of Medieval And Modern Cities Hampi Surat Masulipatnam

  • 13th Century: Delhi was fortified town occupied by garrisons, seldom control on hinterland – dependent on trade, tribute and plunder for supplies

  • Expansion occurred during Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq

  • Consolidating hinterlands of Ganga-Yamuna doab – given to peasants and agriculture.

  • New fortresses and towns were established to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.

  • Second expansion: External frontier & military expedition in south – army captured horses, elephants and slaves.

Alauddin Khilji’S Campaign

Image of Alauddin Khilji's Campaign

Image of Alauddin Khilji's Campaign

Image of Alauddin Khilji's Campaign

Mosque & Masjids

  • Quwwat al-Islam mosque and minaret: Built in 12th Century as congregational mosque described in chronicles as Dehli-i-kuhna (the old city). Enlarged by Iltutmish and Alauddin Khalji. Minar was built by three Sultans– Qutbuddin Aybak, Iltutmish and Firuz Shah Tughluq

  • Begumpuri mosque: By Muhammad Tughluq - main mosque of Jahanpanah, “Sanctuary of World”, his new capital in Delhi.

  • Moth ki Masjid: Built in the reign of Sikandar Lodi by his minister

  • Congregational mosque: Muslims read their prayers (namaz) together. Members choose most respected, learned male as their leader (imam) for rituals. He also delivers sermon (khutba) during Friday prayer. During prayer, Muslims stand facing Mecca. In India this is to the west. This is called the qibla.

  • Mosque demonstrated their claims to be protectors of Islam and Muslims

  • Provides community feeling

Khiljis & Tughluqs

  • Delhi Sultans especially Iltutmish: Favored their special slaves purchased for military service - bandagan in Persian – political offices & were trustworthy

  • Raised people of humble birth, who were often their clients (under protection of another), to high political positions – governors and generals

  • Clients loyal to patrons and not to heirs

  • New Sultans had own servants

  • Conflict between new and old nobility

  • Muhammad Tughluq appointed Aziz Khummar (wine distiller), Firuz Hajjam (barber), Mank a Tabbakh (cook), and two gardeners, Ladha and Pira, to high administrative posts

  • Military commanders: lands were called iqta and their holder was called iqtadar or muqti – led military campaign and collected revenue as salary – collected taxes only by state

  • Sultans forced landed chieftains (samanta aristocrats) & rich landlords to accept their authority

  • Taxes: Cultivation called kharaj 50% of peasant’s produce, on cattle and on houses

  • Distant provinces became independent

Mongols

  • Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in northeast Iran in 1219

  • Attacks increased during Allauddin Khalji (mobilized army with high administrative charges)

Table of Mongols Information
Table of Mongols Information

Alauddin Khalji

Muhammad Tughluq

Delhi attacked twice. Maintained huge army

Mongols defeated

Maintained huge army

Constructed garrison town - Siri

Oldest of 4 cities – Delhi-i-Kuhna was emptied, residents of old city were sent to new capital of Daulatabad in south

Soldiers fed by taxes collected from land between doab (50%)

Produce from same area was collected as tax to feed army

Soldiers paid in cash

Soldiers paid in cash

Prices of goods were controlled

Token currency introduced

Administrative measures were successful

Administrative measures were failure – Kashmir campaigns were disaster & token currency was recalled

Sayyids & Lodis

  • Ruled until 1526

  • Jaunpur, Gujarat, Malwa etc. were independent states

  • New rulers like Afghans and Rajputs

  • Sher Shah Sur challenged Humayun (captured Delhi and ruled for 15 years as Suri dynasty) – Administrative styles were followed by Akbar

Three Orders

  • First formulated in France in early 11th century. Society into three classes: those who prayed, those who fought, and those who tilled the land. Supported by Church. Emergence of warriors called knights.

  • Idea of “Peace of God”. Direct warriors against conflict and send them to campaign against Mulsims captured in Jerusalem (Crusades). Knights did not belong to class of nobles.