NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 4: The Mughal Empire YouTube Lecture Handouts

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  • Expanded kingdom from 16th to 17th Century

  • PM address Independence Day Speech from Red Fort (Residence of Mughal Emperors)

Image of Political Map of Asia

Image of Political Map of Asia

Image of Political Map of Asia

Ancestry

Babur

  • Succeeded to throne at 12 years

  • 1st on throne of Ferghana in 1494

  • Uzbegs invaded and was forced to leave

  • Seized Kabul in 1504

  • 1526: Defeated Ibram Lodi in Battle of Panipat

  • Captured Agra & Delhi

  • Afghans were threat to Mughals

  • 1527: Defeated Rana Sanga, Rajput rulers and allies at Khanua

  • 1528: Defeated the Rajputs at Chanderi

Humayun

  • Divided inheritance based on father’s will

  • Each brother given a province

  • Sher Khan defeated him at Chausa (1539) and Kanauj (1540)

  • He fled to Iran

  • Got help from Safavid Shah

  • Recaptured Delhi in 1555

  • Died in Accident

Akbar

  • Emperor at 13 years

  • Under Bairam Khan – Campiagns against Suris and Afghans

  • Suppressed revolt of his half-brother Mirza Hakim & Uzbegs

  • 1568: Sisodiya capital of Chittor was seized

  • 1569: Ranthambhor was seized

  • Military campaigns to Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal & Odisha

  • Expansion of empire to NW

  • Qandahar was seized from the Safavids

  • Kashmir was annexed

  • Kabul annexed after death of Mirza Hakim

  • Annexed Deccan, Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar

  • Ibadat khana: various religious people discussed (religious scholars who emphasised ritual and dogma were often bigots)

  • Sulh-i-Kul or universal peace – ethics, honesty and peace – was followed by Jahangir & Shah Jahan

Image of Specify Mughal Empire In Map

Image of Specify Mughal Empire in Map

Image of Specify Mughal Empire In Map

Jahangir

  • Sisodiya ruler of Mewar, Amar Singh accepted his rule

  • Known as Prince Salim

  • Wife: Nur Jahan (Mehrunnisa) – loyal & supportive – had seals and coins with her name

Shah Jahan

  • Prince Khurram

  • Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi was defeated

  • Qandahar was lost to Safavids

  • 1632: Annexed Ahmadnagar

  • Aurangzeb was victorious and his three brothers, including Dara Shukoh were killed

  • Was imprisoned for the rest of his life in Agra

Aurangzeb

  • 1663: Ahoms defeated but rebelled again in 1680

  • Initially successful against Shivaji (insulted him when he came to accept Mughal authority)

  • Sent armies to Deccan

  • 1685: Bijapur annexed

  • 1687: Golconda annexed

  • 1698: Against Marathas who followed guerrilla warfare

  • After his death, succession conflict amongst his sons

Succession

  • Primogeniture: Eldest son inherited his father’s estate

  • Coparcenary inheritance or division of inheritance amongst all the sons – Mughals

Relations to Other Rulers

  • Jahangir’s mother: Kachhwaha princess, daughter of Rajput ruler of Amber

  • Shah Jahan’s mother: Rathor princess, daughter of Rajput ruler of Marwar

  • Sisodiyas did not accept Mughal authority – defeated once by Mughals but land (watan) given back as assignments (watan jagir)

  • In Mughal Service: Mansabdars (hold rank mansab)

  • Grading system used by Mughals to fix rank, salary & military responsibilities

  • Rank & salary determined by Zat

  • Higher Zat, more prestigious position with larger salary

  • Maintain cavalry or sawar

  • Mansabdars got salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs similar to iqtas. However, unlike muqtis, most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs.

  • Akbar’s period: jagirs were assessed

  • Aurangzeb’s period: actual sum was less than granted sum & huge number of mansabdars. Long wait & shortage of jagirs. Peasantry suffered a lot.

Zabt & Zamindars

Major tax was on produce of peasantry

Taxes paid by rural elite

Zamindars were intermediaries

Todarmal (revenue minister of Akbar) carried crop survey – tax fixed on each crop in cash

Province divided into revenue circle with revenue rates – Zabt – not possible in Gujarat & Bengal

Provinces divided into subas & subas had subedars (political & military functions), diwans (financial)

  • Military paymaster (bakhshi)

  • Minister in charge of religious and charitable patronage (sadr)

  • Military commanders (faujdars)

  • Town police commander (kotwal)

Abul Fazal wrote Akbar Nama in 3 volumes

  • Volume 1: Akbar’s ancestors

  • Volume 2: Event of Akbar’s reign

  • Volume 3: Ain-i-Akbari – Administration and revenue & cultural details – statistics on crops and yields

Shah Jahan period: 5.6% mansabdars received 61.5% of total revenue.

Most income was spent on salary and goods – benefitted artisans and peasantry

Poorest lived from hand to mouth – economic strata created

Mughal elite became very powerful

Mughals declined and servants became powerful – dynasties like Awadh and Hyderabad came into power

Worldwide

  • Queen Elizabeth I (dynasty Tudors) – conflict b/w Catholics and Protestants (reformed church) – tried to establish independence of Church of England from Rome

  • Conflicted with Phillip II from Spain & defeated them

  • Supported playwrighters like Shakespeare & poets like Edward Spenser (wrote epic poem called The Faerie Queene in her praise)

Contemporaries of Akbar

  • Ottoman Turkey, Sultan Suleyman: Al-Qanuni or lawgiver (1520-1566)

  • Safavid ruler of Iran: Shah Abbas (1588-1629)

  • Russian ruler, Czar Ivan IV Vasilyevich or “Ivan the terrible” (1530-1584)