NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 11: The Making of the National Movement 1870s − 1947 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Nationalism Emerges

  • Britishers were exercising control on lives of Indian and India’s resources – so need was to end this control

  • Political associations after 1850 depicted this clearly – especially those in 1870s and 1880s

  • Poona Sarvajanik Sabha (of or for all people) – goal of all people of India irrespective of region, community or class –with idea of Sovereign (act without interference)

  • Reasons for intensification of dissatisfaction from British rule

  • Arms Act, 1878 – Indians couldn’t possess arms

  • Vernacular Press Act – silence those who were critical of government, confiscate newspaper asset if the content was objectionable

  • Ilbert Bill, 1883 – trial of British persons by Indian and equality b/w Indian and British judges (but was withdrawn as whites opposed) – racial attitude of Britishers

Indian National Congress

  • Established in 1885 with 72 delegates

  • Dadabhai Naoroji (businessman and publicist settled in London), Pherozeshah Mehta, Badruddin Tyabji, W.C. Bonnerji, Surendranath Banerji, Romesh Chandra Dutt, S. Subramania Iyer

  • Mainly in Bombay and Calcutta

  • A.O.Hume – brought Indians from various regions

  • Naoroji wrote Poverty and Un-British Rule in India – criticism of economic impact of British rule

Nation in Making

  • 1st 20 years was moderate – wanted Indian voice in government

  • Legislative council to be more representative, more powers

  • Indians to be placed in high position in government – civil service exams in India and London

  • Indianisation of administration – as major jobs monopolized by whites – with aim to reduce drain of wealth

  • Separation of judiciary from executive

  • Repeal of Arms Act

  • Freedom of speech and expression

  • Declared British rule led to poverty and famines: increase in the land revenue had impoverished peasants and zamindars, and exports of grains to Europe had created food shortages

  • Reduction of revenue

  • Cut in military expenditure

  • More funds for irrigation

  • Resolution on salt tax, treatment of Indians abroad & sufferings of forest dwellers

  • Develop public awareness about unjustice of British rule

  • Published newspapers, articles and speeches

Freedom is Our Birth Right

  • By 1890s – question about political style of Congress

  • Lal Bal Pal (Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai)

  • Radical objectives

  • Criticized moderates

  • Emphasized self-reliance and constructive work

  • Rely on one’s own strength

  • Fight for swaraj

  • Tilak - Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it!

  • Kesari - Marathi newspaper edited by Tilak, became one of the strongest critics of British rule.

Partition of Bengal

  • In 1905 by Lord Curzon

  • Bengal was biggest province of British India and included Bihar and Odisha

  • Tied to British interests

  • Rather than removing the non-Bengali areas from the province, government separated East Bengal and merged it with Assam

  • British wanted to curtail influence of Bengali politicians and split Bengali people

  • Both moderates and extremists opposed it

  • Public meetings and demonstrations were made

Swadeshi Movement

  • Strongest in Bengal (also called as Vandemataram movement in Andhra Pradesh)

  • Opposed British rule

  • Encouraged self-help, swadeshi enterprise, national education and Indian languages

  • Boycott of British institutes and goods

  • Revolutionary violence started

All India Muslim League

  • Formed in Dacca in 1906

  • Supported partition of Bengal

  • Wanted separate electorates for Muslims in 1909

  • Seats in councils were reserved for Muslims

Congress Split in 1907

  • Moderates were opposed to boycott

  • They felt it involved force

  • Dominated by Moderates

  • Later two reunited in 1915

  • Lucknow Pact – b/w Congress and Muslim League was signed to work together for representative government

Growth of Mass Nationalism

  • Involved peasants, tribals, students, factory workers and women

  • WW-I: huge rise in defence expenditure which was imparted on individual income as taxes – led to price rise for common people but businessmen earned huge profits (demand for industrial goods like cloth, jute, iron rails); industries in India expanded, expansion of army (villages pressurized to supply soldiers to be sent abroad)

  • 1917 – Revolution in Russia inspired the local workers

Advent of Mahatma Gandhi

  • 1895 – Established Natal Congress to fight racial discrimination

  • Arrived in India from South Africa in 1915

  • Emerged as mass leader

  • Had contact with various types of Indians: Hindus, Muslims, Parsis and Christians; Gujaratis, Tamils and north Indians; and upper-class merchants, lawyers and workers

  • 1st year he travelled throughout India to understand needs

  • Interventions in Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad

  • Came in contact with Rajendra Prasad & Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

  • 1918 – successful mill worker strike in Ahmedabad

Rowlatt Act

  • 1919 – satyagraha against Rowlatt Act (it curbed freedom of expression and strengthened police powers)

  • Criticized by Gandhi and Jinnah as devilish and 6th April as “day of humiliation and prayer” with hartals (strikes)

  • Satyagraha sabhas were set up –against British government but was restricted to cities

  • Jallianwala Bagh atrocities, inflicted by General Dyer in Amritsar on Baisakhi day (13 April), were a part of this repression

  • Tagore renounced the knighthood (honor granted by British Crown for exceptional achievement)

  • Hindus and Muslims were united against the fight

Khilafat Agitation

  • 1920 – British imposed treaty on Turkish Sultan or Khalifa

  • Indian Muslims were keen that the Khalifa be allowed to retain control over Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman Empire

  • Led by Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali - wished to initiate a full-fledged Non-Cooperation Movement

  • Was supported by Gandhiji

  • Congress to campaign against Jallianwala massacre, Khilafat wrongs and demand swaraj

Non-Cooperation Movement

  • Gained momentum in 1921-22

  • Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das, C. Rajagopalachari and Asaf Ali gave up their law practices

  • British titles were surrendered

  • Legislatures were boycotted

  • Public bonfire of foreign cloth (import reduced drastically)

  • In Kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants organised nonviolent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.

  • In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed

  • In Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “forest satyagrahas”, sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing fee.

  • Sindh, Muslim traders enthusiastic about Khilafat & same was in Bengal

  • Punjab - Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants (functionaries of Sikh Gurudwaras - supported by British)

  • Assam - tea garden labourers asked for “Gandhi Maharaj ki Jai”, demanded a big increase in their wages. Vaishnava song was substituted by “Gandhi Raja”

People’S Mahatma

  • Considered messiah by some

  • Build class unity and not class conflict

  • Help in fight against zamindars

  • Peasants in Pratapgarh in United Provinces (UP) managed to stop illegal eviction of tenants

Happenings of 1922-29

  • Gandhiji called of Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 when set of people put fire to police station in Chauri Chaura – 22 policemen died

  • Called for constructive works in rural areas

  • Chittaranjan Das (lawyer in East Bengal) and Motilal Nehru – party should fight elections to enter councils and influence govt. policies

  • Formation of RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) & Communist Party of India

  • Bhagat Singh was also active during this period - It takes a loud voice to make the deaf hear. Inquilab Zindabad!

    • Founded Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928 at Ferozeshah Kotla in Delhi. HSRA members assassinated Saunders, a police officer who had led a lathicharge that caused the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

    • Along with his fellow nationalist B.K. Dutt, he threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929.

    • He was tried and executed at age of 23

  • 1927 – Simon Commission by Lord Simon to decide India’s political future with no Indian representative – created outrage in India – “Simon Go back”

  • 1929 – Purna Swaraj (Complete Independence) under Jawaharlal Nehru and 26 Jan 1930 was observed as Independence Day

Dandi March

  • 1930 – March to break salt law (state has monopoly over manufacture and sale of salt) as it was sinful to tax salt

  • 240 miles from Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi

  • Sarojini Naidu (1st women president of INC) persuaded him to allow women to join the movement

  • Participation of rich and poor, peasants and tribals

  • Govt. tried to crus action against peaceful satyagrahis

  • GoI Act 1935 – brought provincial autonomy

  • 1937 – Govt. announced elections to provincial legislatures (Congress govt. was formed in 7 of 11 provinces)

  • In 1939, WW-II broke out – Congress leaders were ready to support British against Hitler but wanted independence which was refused by British

  • Veer Lakhan Nayak (a legendary tribal leader who defied the British) was hanged.

  • Baji Mohammed, President of the Nabrangpur Congress in Orissa mobilized 20,000 people – participated in WW-II and Quit India Movement

  • Women in Freedom Struggle - Ambabai of Karnataka had been married at age 12. Widowed at 16, she picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops in Udipi. She was arrested, served a sentence and was rearrested. Between prison terms she made speeches, taught spinning, and organized prabhat pheris. Ambabai regarded these as the happiest days of her life because they gave it a new purpose and commitment.

  • In 1941 – Subhash Chnadra Bose founded INA (Indian National Army) – he left secretly from Calcutta to Singapore via Germany to raise fund for Azad Hind Fauj. In 1944, it entered India through Imphal and Kohima but campaign failed

Quit India Movement & Onwards

  • In August 1942

  • New movement in middle of WW-II

  • People moved with “Do or Die” but non-violently

  • Many leaders were jailed

  • By end of 1943, around 90,000 were arrested and 1,000 killed in firing

  • Muslim league was demanding separate state in NW and East India

  • Brought some tension b/w Hindus and Muslims

  • Provincial elections of 1937 – Muslims as minority

  • Talk b/w Muslims and League failed as League saw itself as spokesperson of India Muslims but Congress had a huge support from Muslims

  • Elections to provinces held again in 1946 – Congress performed in general Constituencies but League succeeded in Muslim seats

  • In March 1946 the British cabinet sent 3-member mission to Delhi to examine this demand and to suggest a suitable political framework for a free India – India must be united and must be a confederation with autonomy of Muslim majority areas (but could not get Muslim League to agree on specific details of proposal) – partition became inevitable now

  • After failure of Cabinet Misison – Muslim League decided for mass agitation to win Pakistan demand

  • 16 August 1946 – announced as “Direct Action Day” – riots in Calcutta and by March 1947 to major parts of India

  • Joy of independence came with mixed pain and violence of Partition

  • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Badshah Khan) – Pashtun leader from NWFP & founder of Khudai Khidmatgars (non-violent movement amongst Pathans) – opposed partition & criticized Congress for agreeing for 1947 division

  • Maulana Azad (born in Mecca) – Bengali father and Arab mother – scholar of Islam -exponent of the notion of wahadat-i-deen, the essential oneness of all religions – Hindu Muslim unity and opposed Jinnah’s two-nation theory

  • C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) – member of Interim Govt. in 1946 & as free India’s first Indian Governor General – Salt Satyagarha in south

  • Sardar Patel – Born in Karamsad, Gujarat – from peasant-proprietor family – freedom movement and president of INC in 1931

  • Mohammad Ali Jinnah – Promoter of Hindu-Muslim unity till 1920 – main role in Lucknow Pact but recognized Muslim league after 1934 & major spokesperson for demand for Pakistan

  • Jawaharlal Nehru - leading architect of the national movement and of free India’s economy and polity.

Nationalism in Africa

  • Colonial rule in Africa was dictatorial

  • Only “Chiefs” were allowed to rule on behalf of the foreign powers

  • Laws affecting Africans were created in all-white legislatures

  • Africans had no decision-making powers or representation, not until after WW-II at least.

  • 1957 – Ghana (Gold Coast) was 1st Sub-Saharan African nation to gain independence – movement led by Kwame Nkrumah’s Convention People’s Party