Religion of India-Buddhism, Jainism, Vaishnavaism, Saivism

Gautama Buddha 563 - 483 B.C

Gautam Buddha and Buddhism- Most Important Information
Most important information about Gautam Buddha and Buddhism summarized in a table.

Caste:

Kshatriya

Real Name:

Siddhartha

Born:

563 BC, according to the Cantonese tradition and other Chinese tradition

Father's Name:

Suddhadhana, Elected chief of Sakya Republic

Place:

Kapilvastu / Lumbini / Rummindei

Mother:

Mahamaya, Princess of Kosalan dynasty

Step Mother:

Prajapati Gautami, she marked the beginning of the Nuns system in Buddhism.

Wife:

Yasodhara, daughter of Sakyanoble: according to

Buddhavamsa Bhadkhasa was the name of his wife; According to Jataka her name was Bimba; according to Lalitavistara her name was Gopa

Cousin:

Devadutta, envious cousin of Buddha, who created

Schism

Teacher:

Asita was first Guru; ArdhaKalan, after renunciation, he taught Upanishad to him, Udraka Ramaputra was also teacher, met near Rajagriha

Horse:

Kantaka

Charioteer:

Channa

Mara:

Devi who disturbed Guatam Buddha in his meditation

Belattha:

The merchant to whom Buddha met on his way to Rajgir

Mahabhiniskramana:

Great Going forth and became ascetic

Ananthapindika:

A rich merchant who gave gifts to Gautama Buddha and his Sangha

Jivaka Chintamani:

Royal Physician, who treated Gautama Buddha

Renunciation:

Abandoned the world at the age of 29 due to four signs Death, Old Age, Disease, and Mendicament.

Venuvana:

His health deteriorated

Wandering:

7 years, attained enlightenment at the age of 35 at Bodha Gaya at Niraniana River

First Sermon:

Sarnath in Benaras, called Isipatna, called Dharmachakra- pravartana, the birth place of Buddhism

Death:

Sukramaddhava, death caused by meal of pork Died during the dynasty of Mallas Died in 483 BC- at Kusinagar at Kasia, his death is called 'Parinirvana'.

Buddhist Literature

  • Vinaya Pitaka :

    • Rules of the order or Buddha's disciplinary Code. It has following parts:

    1. Sutta Vibhanga;

    2. Khandaka;

    3. Parivara;

    4. Maha-Vibhanga;

    5. Bhikkuni - Vibhanga.

  • Sutta Pitaka :

    • Sermons on matter of doctrines and ethics, Buddha Teachings, it is the largest of the Tripitaka

    1. Digha Nikaya : Long sermons of the last days of the Gautama Buddha

    2. Majjhima Nikaya: The shorter sermons

    3. Samyuta Nikaya : Brief prouncement

    4. Anguttara Nikaya : Graduated 2000 brief statements

    5. Khuddaka Nikaya: miscellaneous prose / verse, it has 15 books:

      1. Khuddaka - patha,

      2. Dhammapada,

      3. Udana

      4. Itivuttaka,

      5. Suttanipata,

      6. Vimana Vattu,

      7. Peta-vattu,

      8. Thera-Gatha,

      9. Jataka,

      10. Niddesa,

      11. Patisambhida,

      12. Apadana,

      13. Buddhavamsa,

      14. Cariya-Pratika, and

      15. Theri-Ghata

  • Abhidhamma Pitaka: On metaphysics and philosophy

  1. Dhamma Sangani,

  2. Vibhanga,

  3. Dhatu-Katha,

  4. Pugala - panmatti,

  5. Katha-vatu,

  6. Yamaka,

  7. Pattana

Biographies of Buddha:

  1. Mahavastu of Lokattara-vadins: a subdivision of Mahasanghikas

  2. Lalitavistara of Sarvasta-vadin

  3. Buddhachaita composed by Asvaghosa

  4. Niddanakatha - the only biography in Pali

  5. Abhinishkramana - thee sutra of the DharmaGuptas

Buddhagosha's commentaries:

  1. Samanta Pasadika - a commentary on Vinaya Pitaka

  2. Sumangalavilasani - a commentary on Digh Nikaya

  3. Sarathapakasani - a commentary on Samyutta

  4. Namorathapurani - a commentary on Anguttara

  5. Papancasudani Dhamma-padakatha

Buddhist Sects: Madhyamika: 2nd century A.D

  • It if a philosophy on nihilism, believed in illusion

  • Founded by Arya Nagarjuna or Nagarjuna

  • It is a philosophy between realism of Sarvastivadin Sect and idealism of Yogasara.

  • Sunyata, popularly known as Sunyavada-which means illusion

  • He was contemporary of Gautamiputra Satakarni.

  • He is called Einstein of India because he believed in the theory of relativity.

Philosophers of this School:

  • Aryadeva - 3rd century A.D

  • Buddhapalita - 5th century A.D, belonged to Prasangika School

  • Bhavaviveka - 5th century A.D, belonged to Svatantra School

  • Chandrakirti - 6th century A.D

  • Santideva - 7th A.D

  • Kumarajiva - propagated Madhyamika in China

Yogacara School: or Vijnanavadiu : 3rd century A.D

  • Believed in consciousness, an idealist

  • Founded by Maitreynatha

  • Recognises three degree of Knowledge :

  • Parikalpika (illusory)

  • Paratantra (Empirical)

  • Parisnispana (Absolute)

Important followers:

  • Maitreya: c3rd AD

  • Asanga : c4th AD written Sutralankara

  • Vasubhandu : c4th AD, written:

    1. Adhidharmakosha,

    2. Vijnaptimatrata siddhi - basic book of the system- gave the concept of Alayavijnana

  • Shiramati: c5th AD

  • Dinnaga : c5th AD, he is father of Medieval Nyaya, first Hinayanist of Vastiputriya Sect, written Pramana – samuccaya and Nyaya Pravesa

  • Dharmapala : c7th AD, he wrote Netti

  • Dharmakirti : c7th AD, according to Stcherbatsky, he was Kant, written:

    1. Prama Vinischaya,

    2. Nyaya Bindu,

    3. Samanantara Pariksa,

    4. Hetu Bindu,

    5. Vadanyaya

    6. Samantara Siddhi

  • Santaraksita : c8th AD

  • Kamalasila : c8th AD

  • Asvagosha : a contemporary of Kushana Kanishka, and a Mahayanist, wrote Sariputraprakarana- the oldest drama in Sanskrit. He has written:

    1. Saundrananada,

    2. Buddhacarita, belonged to Vijnanvada, he is called Milton, Goetho, Kant, Voltaire

  • Buddhadatta : Abhidhammavatara

  • Chandragomin : Grammar

Phiosophers and Language :

  • Pali: Nagasena, who wrote Milinda Panho, a semi-canonical work Buddhadatta, Buddhagosha, Dhammapala,

Sanskrit:

  • Asvagosha,

  • Nagarjuna,

  • Buddhpalita,

  • Bhavaviveka,

  • Asanga,

  • Vasubandhu,

  • Dinnaga,

  • Dharmakirti

Nine Pali Canoncial Literatures of Buddhism:

  1. Sutta Nikaya : Sermon in prose form

  2. Geyya Nikaya : Prose and Verse

  3. Veyyadkarna : Commentary

  4. Gafhga (stories)

  5. Udana (pithy saying)

  6. It Vattaka (Thus spoke, speeches of Buddhas)

  7. Jataka (Birth Stories)

  8. Abbutadharma (stories of miracles)

  9. Vedalla (Teeachings in the form of questions and answers)

Non- canonical liteerature:

  • Dipavamsa: 4th AD

  • Mahavamsa: 5th AD

  • Caluvamsa : upto 19th AD