Religious Movements: Jainism: A Mohair՚S Life and Preaching՚S

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Jainism

Religious: Jainism

A Mohair՚S Life and Preaching՚S

Originally known as Vardhamana he was born in 540 BC at Kundagram hear Visalia in the Jnatrika or Natta Kshatriya clan to Siddhartha (father) and Trial (mother) married Yahola and had a girl child became an ascetic at the age of 30 and attired kaivalya perfect knowledge) under a sal tree at Jrimbhikagrama in eastern India at the age of 42; preached for 30 years and died at the age of 72 in 468 BC at Paramour neat Rajagriha; became the head of a sect called Nirgranthas (free from fetters) who later came to be known as Jonas after his own title of Jana (conqueror) He also had other titles like Mahavir (great hero) and Evelin scissor of perfect knowledge)

Five Cardhlnal Principles:

  • Non-violence (ahimsa)
  • NO lies (saty)
  • No steeling (saty)
  • NO property (aparigraha) and
  • Observing continence brahmacharya

The five principles or vows when observed by the monks strictly are known as mahaviratas but when lay members practice them they are called anhydrate Only the last principle have been added by MA having the other four being the teachings of his pre- decessors Acceding to Jain tradition Mahavir was the 24th tirthankara (great teacher or ford maker Parsvanatha (son of king Asvasena of Kais in the 8th century BC)

  • Being the 23rd and RishaBadeva (mentioned in the Rig Veda) being the first
  • Three Gems (Titrants) : 1 Full knowledge

Action and 3 Liberation

Jain Church

Jain Church
  • Mahavir had eleven close disciples or apostles known as Gandhara (heads of schools) only one of them Arya Sharman survived Mahavir and became the three (pontiff) of the Jain Church after his death.
  • Sharman՚s successor was Jamba Three generations of pontiffs passed after him.
  • During the reign of the last Nanda of Magadha, the Jain Church was ruled by Sambhutavijaya.
  • for the history of the Jain Church from its inception to the fourth or third century BC. We are indebted to the Jain Kalpasutra of Bhadra bahu who was the sixth there after Mahavir and was a contemn parry of Chandragupta Maura.
    • The Jain Kalpasutra consists of three different sections – the first section contains. The biographies of the twenty – four tirthankara The main part of the first sec- tion consists of the Theravadind a list of schools (gains) and their heads (Gandhara) The third section contains the Samachari or the rules for the Jains monks.
    • The fourteen Purus the textbooks of the old Jain scriptures which Mahavir himself had taught to his Gandhara were perfected by Bhadra bahu.

Shims and Councils

There was a serious famine in the Ganges valley leading to a great exodus of many Jain milks to the Deccan and south India (Savana Bagola) along with Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta Maura They returned after 12 years The leader of the group which stayed back at Magadha was Sthulabahu Differences between the two groups over the code of conduct led to the division of the Jains into Digambara (sky clad or naked) and Svetambaras white- clad)

  • First Council: Held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu the beginning of the 3rd century BC and compilation of the 12 Angus (sections) to replace the lost 14 purveys (former texts) ; their acceptance only by the Svetambaras.
  • Second Council: held at Valhi in the 5th century AD by the Svetambaras under the leadership of Devardhi Shaman and final compilation of the 12 Angus and 12 Pangs (minor sections) .

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