Religious Movements: Jainism: Action and 3 Liberation: Jain Philosophy

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Jainism

Action and 3 Liberation

Jain Philosophy

Jain Philosophy
  • it shows a close affinity with the Brahmanical Samkhya system of philosophy called the Syadvada (theory of May Be0. Seven modes of predication are possible in this Jana philosophy closely related to the syadvada is the Nevada (Doctrine of Viewpoints) . Which shows the seven ways of approaching an object of knowledge or study. The above two doctrines of Jainism are often called together the Anekantavada (Doctrine of Many-sidedness) .
  • According to it the world consists of two eternal. Uncreated. Co-existing but indecent bent categories. Namely the conscious (java) and the unconscious (java) . The conscious being corresponds to the soul it suffers by its contact with matter and is born again and again only to suffer. Its highest endeavor is to free itself from this bondage This is salve tion which could be attained by high her knowledge. The unconscious is not what we call matter. It includes matter. Which is given the name pedal. But it also includes such things as space and time. virtue and vice. Etc.
  • Among the many classifications of Jainism is one that divides all living things (java) into five categories. According to the number of censes they possess.
    • The highest group. Possessing five senses (intelligence. Sight. Smell. Taste and touch) includes men gods. The higher animals and beings in hell.
    • The second class contains creatures thought to have four senses only (all except intelligence) . It includes larger insects such as flies. Butterflies.
    • The class of three- sensed beings. Possessing the senses of smell. Taste and touch. Contains small insects such as ants and bugs.
    • Two- sensed creatures. With only the sense of taste and touch include worms. Leeches etc.
    • it is in the final class of one sensed beings. Which have only the sense of touch? That the Jana classification shows it՚s most original feature. This great class is in turn divided into five subclasses. Vegetable- bodies earth- bodies. Water- bodies. Fire bodies and wind – bodies.
  • Injury to one of the higher forms in the scale of being involves more serious consequences to the soul than injury to a lower form. The Jaina monk vows that as far as possible be will not destroy even the bodies of plant. Earth. Water. Fire or wind.
    • The monk will not eat potatoes or other root vegetables.
    • He strains his drinking water.
    • He wears a face cloth.
    • He will not run or stamp his feet.
    • e refrains from all quick and jerky movements.
  • According to the Jana philosophy there is no god or creator. Manes salvation from sud- firing does not depend upon the mercy of any god or creator Man is the architect of his own destiny life of renunciation is the shortest way to salvation.
  • Jana cosmic cycles: the universe passes through an infinite number of phases of progress and decline. Each cosmic cycle is divided into two halves. The ascending (utsarpini and the descending (avasarpini) we are now in the phase of descent. Which is divided into six periods.
    • in the first them; very happy (samsara- sesame) . people were spontaneously virtuous. So had no need of morals or religion.
    • In the second period the happy (samsara) . There was some diminution of their argues.
    • The third period. Happy – wretched (sesame- duhsama) . Witnessed the appear roe of sorrow and evil in mild forms. Rishabha deva. Knowing the fate that was in store for the world established the institualons of government and civilization.
    • The fourth period wretched happy (duhsama sesame) . Was one of further decline and sew the birth of the other twenty- three tirthankara
    • The fifth period the wretched (duh- same) began three years after Mohair՚s death and is at present current its du-ration is 21,000 years
    • The sixth and last period was the very writhed (duhsama – duhsama) At its end the nadir of decline wile reached At the end there will be fierce storms that will destroy many of the pygmy inhabit ants of the earth but some will survive and from now on the stay of the world will imperceptibly grow barker for the age of ascent will have commenced

Royal Patronage

Royal Patronage
  • Chandragupta Maura was its devout pa torn He had joined Bhadrabahu march to the south A cave is dedicated to him and the hill on which it exists is known as Chandragiri after him.
  • Kharavela of Kalinga professed Jainism and became its illustrious and renowned pa torn by setting up Jain images.
  • From the fifth century any royal dynes ties of the south such as the Ganges Katsambis Chalukyas and Rashtrakuta patronized Jainism.
  • Some Rashtrakuta kings showed a special leaning towards Jainism Many celebrated Jain poets flourished under them Jensen and Tungabhadra compose then Adipurana at the time of king Amongnavarena who՚s great Jain wore Ratan came very Popular One of his successors Indra IV died in the traditional Jain fashion i.e.. by com mitting sallekhana or fasting to death.
  • In the 12th century AD Jainism gained great ascendancy in Gujarat There the Chalukyas king Siddha raja also known as Jayasimha and his successor Kumara Pala were great patrons of the Jana sect they openly professed Jainism and encouraged the literary and temple- building activities at the court of Kumara Pala lived the famous Jana scholar Hemachandra. The longest of his poems is the (Deeds of the Sixty-three Eminent Men) a knot mouse work telling the stories of the twenty – four tirthankara and of other emit ment figures in Jain mythology.

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