Religious Movements: Brahmanism: Vaishnavism: Origin and Vaishnavism Cults

Doorsteptutor material for IAS is prepared by world's top subject experts: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention.

Brahmanism

Origin of Brahmanism

Origins The worship of Yaks as and Nags and other folk- deities constituted the most important part of primitive religious beliefs Set Cral free- standing images of the folk deities belonging to the centuries before and after the Christian era are found in different parts of the country The folk cults survived in the orthodox Brahmanical fold in the form of war sip of Ganesh whose hybrid figure was an amalgam of the pot-bellied Yaks and the el- aphanite Naga, the original importance of the folk element is also apparent in the fact that the first place was assigned to Ganesh in the list of the five principal Puranic deities (Gainsaid Panchadevata: Ganesh Vishnu Siva Shakti and Surya)

Vaishnavism

Origin of Vaishnavism

Origin

  • Vaishnavism, having its origins in the pre- Gupta period began to capture and absorb Bhagavatism during the Gupta period The process was completed by the late Gupta pen- rod and in fact the name mostly used to des ignite Bhagavatism from this period onwards was Vaishnavism indicating the predominant Nance of the later Vedic Vishnu element in it with emphasis on the doctrine of incarnations
  • Vishnu is a conflation of many local diving ties These include: a Vedic god having sone solar characteristics: a popular deified hero Vasudeva worshipped in western India and the philosophical Absolute of the Upanishads (the Brahman
  • The incantatory theory greatly facilitated the assimilation of popular divinities into Vaishnavism lt developed during the Epic period and is referred to in the Purina՚s

Vaishnavism Cults

Bhagauad

  • As seen already the Bhagavatism is a theistic devotional cult which originated several centuries before the Christian. lt is based mainly on the Bhagauad Gita, but later Bhagauad Purina and Vishnu Purina became its main texts the supreme deity is Vasudeva Krishna (identified later with Vishnu) .
  • The adherence of the Rajput kings fur there spread Bhagavatism to the whole of India In southern India in the Tamil land the Bhagavatism movement was spread largely by the twelve Alias.

Panchatantra

  • According to tradition the Pancharatra teachings were first systematized in about 100 AD by Saniya
  • Acomologial basis was given to Vasudeva Krishna by identifying him and the members of his family wilt specific cosmic emanation (Uvulas) this was an important tenet of the early Pancharatra and of the later Sri Vaishnavism cult the ayah or emanatory theory developed early in the Christian era
  • Vasudeva created from himself the uvula Sankarshans (a name of Krishna՚s brother) identified with Primal matter (priority) from these two com bines Krishna՚s son Pradyumna was pro diced and identified with mind (manes) from these arose Aniruddha (Krishna՚s grandson) identified with self-conscious- ness (Shankar a) from the last two sprang the five elements (panchabhutas simultaneously with Brahma who fish ironed the earth and everything in it from these elements
  • All the above deified heroes veer war shipped in Mathura region by people of Yadav Satapatha Virani origin and the tea chin was carried to western India and the northern Deccan by migrating Yadav tribes.

Vaishanavas

  • This strongly ritualistic cult was founded by the legendary vikhanas whose teaching was disseminated by four ancient sages: Atria Marci. Brig and Kagyupa.
  • Vaishanavas ritual theory is based on the five – fold conception of Vishnu – as Brahman the supreme deity as purusha; as saty as Achyuta (the immutable) and as Aniruddha (the ire decibel aspect.) performing the five- fold ritual expiates evil and bestows happiness on everyone.
  • Vishnu՚s dasavataras are also war shipped for specific purposes. Image war ship is important in this movement and is said to be a development of symbolic Vedic ritual.
  • Vaishanavas priests were in charge of Vaishnavism temples and shrines. AL – though somewhat eclipsed by the rise of the Sri Vaishnavism cult of Ramanujan the priests still perform rituals in the Sanskrit language at some temples including the Venkatesvara temples at Tirupati and Kanchi.

Alvars or Vaishnava Saints

In south India. They preached one – souled and loving adoration for Vishnu and their songs in Tamil were collectively called parbhanas. There were totally 12 Altars. The most famous among them being nummular . Andale and Tirumalisai Alva.

Vaishnavism Acharya՚S or Teachers

Ramanujan. One of the early great Acharya՚s developed the doctrine of the basis of some Upanishad texts in opposition to Sankaracharya. DaVita or non- dualism Ankara does not belong to either Vaishnavism or Slavism but to the morgana school) . Three other Vaishnavism Acharya՚s of the south were Madhavacharya. Numara and Villabhacharya. The first founded the Danita (dualism) the second Dvaitadvaita (dualistic non-dualism) and the third Suddhadvaita (pure non-dualism) respect- timely.

Developed by: