Religion of India

Saivism:

  • Non-Aryan Shiv identified with vedic GodMaruta.

  • The Svetasvatara Upanis-had extolled Rudra.

(a) Pasupatas:

  • Pasupatas doctrine has amended and organised by Lakulisa or Nakulisa, Lakulin, or Naku-lin, was in dualistic character.

  • Lakulisa has been regarded as the founder of Pasupatas sect

  • In records, the erection of two images called Kapil-esvara and Upamitesvara, by one Uditacarya, the Mahesvara (Pasupata) teacher, the latter is described in the record as 10th in the apostolic succession from Kusika.

  • The Kusika was no other than the first of the four immediate disciples of Lakulisa (Kusika, Mitra, Garga, Kaurushya).

  • A Bronze seal of 1st century BC unearthed by Marshall on the Sirkap site of ancient Taxila contains the figure of Siva and Brahmi and Kharosthi legends (Sivarak-shitasa).

  • Nataraja has invented 108 dances.

  • Kapalikas and Kalam-ukhas part of this sect, already existing in the Gupta period. SRISHATL was the main centre of Kapalikas informed by Bhavabhuti.

  • The Shiva Purana informs Kalamukhas are known as Mahavratadhar.

  • Ahannuru, in Sangam literature, describes Siva as Lord who wears Konrai.

  • Lakulisa has been regarded as the founder of Pasupatas sect, the 28th Angamas and the last incarnation of Shiva.

  • In the vayu Purana, Mahesvara is represented to have declared to Brahma that in the 28th Mahayuga, when Vishnu would be born as Vasudeva, he would incarnate as a brahmacharin, by name Nakulin, after entering a dead body in the burial ground of Kayarohana, a land of siddhas, and that he would have pupils - Kusika, Gargya, Mitraka, and Rushta- who, duly initiated Mahesvar-ayoga, would reach Rudr-aloka whence there is no return.

  • According to Linga Purana, the pupils are called Kusika, Garga, Mitra, and Kaurushyas.

  • Lakulisa is considered to be author of Pancharthavidya.

  • The Mathura Inscription of the reign of Chandra Gupta II proves that Lakulin flouished in the 1st quarter of the second century AD.

  • The Pasupatas believe that Mahesvara has taught five categories for the sake of releasing the Jiva from its bonds:

    1. Karya or effect, that which is not independent

    2. Karana or cause, that which is independent

    3. Yoga or path

    4. Vidhi or rule

    5. Duhkhanta or the end of misery: it has two categories:

      1. Anatmaka, which is of the nature of the absolute elimination of misery;

      2. Satmaka, which is of the nature of thee lordship consisting in the possession of powers of seeing and acting It has a five-fold division -

        1. Darsana, which is knowledge, visual, tactile, etc, of objects which are subtle, concealed or distant,

        2. Sravana: which is supernormal hearing of all objects of sound

        3. Manana: This is supernormal knowing of all objects of thought.

        4. Vijnana: This is supernormal knowledge of all sciences with their treatises and what are taught in them.

        5. Sarvajnatva: This is supernormal knowledge of principles of Knowledge. The power of Acting is said to be threefold:

          1. Manojavitva : the power of doing anything instantly

          2. Kamarupitva: the power of assuming a variety of shapes and forms.

          3. Vikranadharmitva: possession of supreme power.

  • According to Haribhadra's Shaddarsanasamuchchaya, Gautama and Knanda were Saiva.

  • In records, the erection of two images called Kapil-esvara and Upamitesvara, by one Uditacarya, the Mahesvara (Pasupata) teacher, the latter is described in the record as 10th in the Apostlic succession from Kusika.

  • The Kusika was no other than the first of the four immediate disciples of Lakulisa (Kusika, Mitra, Garga, Kaurushya).

  • A Bronze seal of 1st century BC unearthed by Marshall on thee Sirkap site of ancient Taxila contains the figure of Siva and Brahmi and Kharosthi legends (Sivarak shi-tasa).

  • Nataraja has invented 108 dances.

  • Kapalikas and Kalamukhas part of this sect, already existing in the Gupta period.

  • SRISHAIL was the main centre of Kapalikas as informed by Bhavabhuti.

  • The Shiva Purana informs Kalamukhas are known as Mahavratadhar.

  • Ahannuru, in Sangam 1

(b) Mukhalingas:

  • Proper known from Gupta age onwards : they are usually Ekamukha or Chatur-mukha types :

    • Rudra or Pujabhagas,

  • The representation of four faces.:

    • Sadyojata,

    • Vamadeva,

    • Aghora,

    • Tatpu-rusha

(c) 63 Nayanars:

  • They revived Saivism through emotional songs called TEVARAM Sutras.

  • Tirumalai, composed between 7th and 10th century has 11 sacred books and the most important book is Tevaram, it is called Dravida Veda.

Tirumurais: collected writing of Nyanars and Alvars.

  1. Tirunavukkarasu : called Appar, contemporary of Pallava Mahendravarman I, earlier he was a Jaina

  2. Jnanasambandha: 7th AD

  3. Nanasambandhar: 2nd AD

  4. Tirujnanasambandar

  5. Manikavasagara

  6. Sundramurti

(d) Lingavat Movement:

  • Founded by Basava, the Prime Minister of Kalchuri. Ousted Jainism from Mysore

  • Developed Sata Sthala

  • System of Philosophy, based on28SaivaAGAMAS

  • Followers known as Vira Saivas or Lingayat. Vira Saiva philosophy is called Saktivisht-advaita :

  • Patronised by Eastern Chalukyas, Eastern Gangas and Kakityas.

(e) Ardhya - Saiva Sect:

  • It was founded by Mallika-rjuna and Panditaradhya.

(f) Vacankaras:

  • Founded by Sarvaja.

(g) Acaryas:

  • Who interpreted the Prasthantraya the Upanis-hads, the Bhagavata Gita and Vedanta Sutra.

(h) Aagmantins:

  • Agmantic terminology first appeared in the writings of the Manikvasagar.

  • Aghora Shivacarya, Srikanta Sivaca-rya, Sundaramurtti, Tiru-mandiram.

Saivism in Kashmir:

In Kashmir, Saivism is known as Trika, or Triad

  1. Pratyabhijana School founded by Vasugupta in 9th century AD, he has written a book called Shiva Sutra

  2. Spandashastra School founded by his pupils Kkallata and Somananda

  3. Tantashastra written by Abhinava Gupta, the prime theorist.

In Central India the Saiva known as Mattamayurs and Other Exponents:

  • Meykander, Umapati, Siva-carya, Arunagirinatha, Tayum-anavar.

  • Sripadaraja founder of Haridasa Movement.

  • Purandeidasa: father of Karnataka Music System